• G.A Camelo-Méndez
  • P.E. Vanegas-Espinoza
  • A.R. Jiménez-Aparicio
  • L.A. Bello-Pérez
  • A.A. Del Villar-Martínez
Keywords: Mexican rice cultivars, chalkiness, image analysis application, morpho-colorimetric features, multivariate


The opaque spot in the rice endosperm is called chalkiness; this characteristic has been recognized as agrain quality parameter for milling, and it is related to water retention. There is little scientific information about image analysis application (IAA) to characterize chalkiness development as pattern of the rice grain quality. In this work, chalkiness in the transversal section of polished grain of five rice varieties, using dierent parameters (form factor, fractal dimension concepts, angular second moment, lacunarity, entropy and color) was identified. The multivariate analysis indicated that the studied varieties presented morphometric characteristics that enabled it to be classified with 99.24% of accuracy. The results allowed the grouping by dendrogram analysis in two groups: 1) MorA-92, MorA-98, MorA-06, and 2) MF and MC, distinguishing between varieties, and demonstrating similar morphocolorimetric chalkiness characteristic patterns between the analyzed rice varieties.


Camacho-Díaz, B.H., Jiménez-Aparicio, A., Chanona-Pérez, J.J., Calderón-Domínguez, G., Alamilla-Beltrán, L., Hernández-Sánchez, H., Gutiérrez-López, G.F. (2010). Morphological characterization of the growing front of Rhizopus oligosporus in solid media. Journal of Food Engineering 101, 309-317.

Camelo-Méndez, G.A., Camacho-Díaz, B.H., Del Villar-Martínez, A.A., Arenas-Ocampo, M.L., Bello-Pérez, L.A., Jiménez-Aparicio, A.R. (2012). Digital image analysis of diverse Mexican rice cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 92, 2709-2714.

Candole, B.L., Siebenmorgen, T.J., Lee, F.N., Cartwright, R.D. (2000). Effect of rice blast and sheath blight on physical properties of selected rice cultivars. Cereal Chemistry 77, 535-540.

Chávez-Murillo, C.E., Wang, J.Y., Quintero-Gutiérrez, A.G., Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2011). Physicochemical, textural and nutritional characterization of Mexican rice cultivars. Cereal Chemistry 88, 245-252.

Courtois, F., Faessel, M., Bonazzi, C. (2010). Assessing breakage and cracks of parboiled rice kernels by image analysis techniques. Food Control 21, 567-572.

Du, C.J., Sun, D.W. (2004). Recent developments in the applications of image processing techniques for food quality evaluation. Trends in Food Science & Technology 15, 230-249.

Dubey, B., Bhagwat, S., Shouche, S., Sainis, S. (2006). Potential artificial networks using morfometrical of wheat grains. Biosystems Engeniering 95, 61-67.

Espinosa-Mendoza, R.E., Solorza-Feria, J., Arenas-Ocampo, M.L., Camacho-Díaz, B.H., Del Villar-Martínez, A.A., Vanegas- Espinoza, P.E., Jiménez-Aparicio, A.R. (2012). Morphostructural characterization of rice grain (Oryza sativa L.) Variety Morelos A-98 during Filling Stages. The Scientific World Journal. DOI:10.1100/2012/940293.

Hernández, A.L., Tavitas, F.L. (2005). Plan Nacional de Investigación y Apoyos a la Transferencia de Tecnología: Cadena Agroalimentaria Arroz (in Spanish). INIFAP, Centro de Investigación Regional del Centro Campo Experimental “Zacatepec”. Zacatepec, Morelos, México, No. 42.

Hintze J.L. (2007). NCSS Help System. Kaysville, Utah.

Jia, Z.K, Gao, R.S., Zhang, S.W. (1992). Meteorological basis of rice chalkiness formation. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 3, 321-326.

Jinorose, M., Prachayawarakorn, S., Soponronnarit, S. (2010). Development of a computer vision system and novel evaluation criteria to characterize color and appearance of rice. Drying Technology 28, 1118-1124.

Kim, S.S., Lee, S.E., Kim, O.W., Kim, D.C. (2000). Physicochemical characteristics of chalky kernels and their effects on sensory quality of cooked rice. Cereal Chemistry 77, 376-379.

Medina, W., Skurtys, O., Aguilera, J.M. (2010). Study on image analysis application for identification Quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) geographical provenance. LWTFood Science and Technology 43, 238-246.

Meraz-Torres, L.S., Quintanilla-Carvajal, M.X., Hernández-Sánchez, H., Téllez-Medina, D.I., Alamilla-Beltrán, L., Gutiérrez-López, G.F. (2011). Evaluación de la cinética del ángulo de contacto durante la humectación de aglomerados de maltodextrina. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 10, 273-279

Ohtsubo, K., Nakamura, S. (2007). Cultivar identification of rice (Oryza sativa L.) by polymerase chain reaction method and its application to processed rice products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, 1501-1509.

Patindol, J., Wang, Y. (2003). Fine structures and physicochemical properties of starches from chalky and translucent rice kernels. Journal Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 2777-2784.

Quintanilla-Carvajal, M.X., Meraz-Torres, L.S., Alamilla-Beltrán, L., Chanona-Pérez, J.J., Terres-Rojas, E., Hernández-Sánchez, H., Jiménez-Aparicio, A.R., Gutiérrez-López, G.F. (2011). Morphometric characterization of spray-dried microcapsules before and after α - tocopherol extraction. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 10, 301-312.

Sakai, N., Yonekawa, S., Matsuzaki, A. (1996). Two-dimensional image analysis of the shape of rice and its application to separating varieties. Journal of Food Engineering 27, 397-407.

Seo, S.W., Chamura, S. (1979). Studies on the characters of the improved semi-dwarf, highyielding indica rice varieties: II. Shape and quality of rice kernel. Japanese Journal of Crop Science 48, 418-424.

Shen, Y., Jin, L., Xiao, P., Lu, Y., Bao, J.S. (2009). Total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity in rice grain and their relations to grain color, size and weight. Journal of Cereal Science 49, 106-111.

Shimizu, N., Haque, M., Andersson, M., Kimura, T. (2008). Measurement and fissuring of rice kernels during quasi-moisture sorption by image analysis. Journal of Cereal Science 48, 98-103.

Tapia-Ochoategui, A.P., Camacho-Díaz, B. H., Perea-Flores, M.J., Ordoñez-Ru´ız, I.M., Gutiérrez-López, G.F., Dávila-Ortiz, G. (2011). Cambios morfométricos durante el beneficio tradicional de las vainas de vainilla (Vanilla planifolia; orchidaceae) en México. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 10, 105-115.

van Dalen, G. (2004). Determination of the size distribution and percentage of broken kernels of rice using flatbed scanning and image analysis. Food Research International 37, 51-58.

Webb, B.D. (1991). Rice quality and grades. In Rice Utilization; Luh, B. S., Ed.; Van NostrandReihold: New York, 89-119.

Wiesnerová, D.,Wiesner L. (2008). Computer image analysis of seed shape and seed color for flax cultivar description. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 61, 126-135.

Yadav, B.K., Jindal, V.K. (2001). Monitoring milling quality of rice by image analysis. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 33, 19-33.

Yadav, B.K., Jindal, V.K. (2007). Modeling changes in milled rice (Oryza sativa L.) kernel dimensions during soaking by image analysis. Journal of Food Engineering 80, 359-369.

Yokota, T., Tutumi, M., Takahashi, K. (1999). Growth rate estimation of in vitro primarily induced carrot callus by a fractal based model. Biochemical Engineering Journal 3, 231-234.

Zheng, C.X., Sun, D.W.,Zheng, L. (2006). Recent developments and applications of image features for food quality evaluation and inspection - a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology 17, 642-655.
How to Cite
Camelo-Méndez, G., Vanegas-Espinoza, P., Jiménez-Aparicio, A., Bello-Pérez, L., & Del Villar-Martínez, A. (2020). MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF CHALKINESS IN MEXICAN RICE VARIETIES BY DIGITAL IMAGE ANALYSIS AND MULTIVARIATE DISCRIMINATION. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 12(3), 371-378. Retrieved from
Food Engineering

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>