• J.L. Trejo-Espino Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa
  • M. Rodríguez-Monroy Departamento de Biotecnología, Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos del Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • E.J. Vernon-Carter Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa
  • F. Cruz-Sosa Departamento de Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa
Keywords: Prosopis laevigata, mesquite gum, stirred tank type bioreactor, arabinogalactan-proteins, emulsifying properties


The mesquite gum (MG) production from P rosopis laevigata cells suspension culture in a stirred tank type bioreactor, with characteristics similar to those of MG obtained from wild trees are reported. The cells showed a specific growth rate (µ) of 0.08 1/d and a viability of over 60 %, reaching a maximum biomass of 16.6 g dry mass (dm)/L after 14 d. The cells produced a gum made up by 83.5% of carbohydrates (L-arabinose, D-galactose and glucuronic acid) and 8.1% of protein, also detected arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) as constituents of the gum. Oil-in-water emulsions were prepared using as continuous phase aqueous solutions of MG obtained from wild trees and that produced in bioreactor (MGb). The emulsifying capacity of MGb was slightly superior, but the emulsion stability lower, than that obtained with MG.


Bradford, M.M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248-254.

Capataz-Tafur, J., Hernández-Sánchez, A., Rodríguez-Monroy, M., Trejo-Tapia, G. and Sepúlveda-Jiménez, G. (2010). Sucrose induces arabinogalactan protein secretion by Beta vulgaris L. cell suspension cultures. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 32 (4), 757- 764.

Classen, B. and Blaschek, W. (2002). An arabinogalactan-protein from cell culture of Malva sylvestris. Planta Medica 68, 232-236.

Classen, B. (2007). Characterization of an arabinogalactan-protein from suspension culture of Echinacea purpurea. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 88, 267-275.

Darjania, L., Ichise, N., Ichikawa, S., Okamoto, T., Okuyama, H. and Thompson, G.A. (2002). Dynamic turnover of arabinogalactan proteins in cultured Arabidopsis cells. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 40, 69-79.

Dickinson, E. (2003). Hydrocolloids at interfaces and the influence on the properties of dispersed systems. Food Hydrocolloids 17, 25-39.

Doran, P. (1995). Bioprocess Engineering Principles. Academic Press, London.

Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A and Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28, 350-356.

Ellis, M., Ejelund, J., Shultz, C.J. and Bacic, A. (2010). Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs): Key regulators at the cell surface? Plant Physiology DOI: 10.1104/pp110.156000.

Günter, E.A. and Ovodov, Y.S. (2007). Polysaccharides of cell cultures of Silene vulgaris. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology 43, 84-90.

Kieran, P., MacLoughlin, P. and Malone, D. (1997). Plant cell suspension cultures: Some engineering considerations. Journal of Biotechnology 59, 39-52.

López-Franco, Y., Valdez M.A., Hernández, J., Calderón de la Barca, A.M., Rinaudo, M. and Goycoolea, F.M. (2004). Macromolecular dimensions and mechanical properties of monolayer films of Sonorean mesquite gum and its fractions. Macromolecular Bioscience 4, 865-874.

Meijer, J.J., Tenhoopen, H.J.G., Vangameren, Y.M., Luyben, K.C.A.M. and Libbenga, K.R. (1994). Effects of hydrodynamic stress on the growth of plant cells in batch and continuous-culture, Enzyme and Microbial Technology 16(6), 467-477.

Murashige, T. and Skoog, F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassay with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiology Plant 15,473-497.

Orozco-Sanchez, F. (2009). Efecto de la oferta de oxígeno sobre el crecimiento y la producción de terpenoides con células de Azadirachta indica en un biorreactor. Ph.D. Thesis, Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bióticos del IPN, Yautepec, Mexico.

Orozco-Villafuerte, J., Ponce-Alquira, E., Cruz-Sosa, F. and Vernon-Carter, E.J. (2003). Mesquite gum: fractionation and characterization of the gum exuded from Prosopis laevigata obtained from plant tissue culture and from wild trees. Carbohydrate Polymers 54, 327-333.

Orozco-Villafuerte, J., Buendía-González, L., Cruz-Sosa, F.and Vernon-Carter, E.J. (2005). Increased mesquite gum formation in nodal explants cultures after treatment with microbial biomass preparation. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 54,327-333.

Pan, Z.W., Wang, H.Q. and Zhong, J.J. (2000). Scale-up on suspension cultures of Taxus chinensis cells for production of taxanediterpene. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 27, 714-723.

Pareilleus A. and Vinas R. (1983). Influence of aeration rate on the growth yield in suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L) G Don. Journal of Fermentation Technology 61, 429-433.

Pearce, K.N. and Kinsella, J.E. (1978). Emulsifying properties of proteins: Evaluation of a turbidimetric technique. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 26, 716-723.

Prakash, G. and Srivastava, A.K. (2007). Azadirachtin production in stirred tank reactors by Azadirachta indica suspension culture. Process Biochemistry 42, 93-97.

Raposo, S. and Lima-Costa, M.E. (2006). Rheology and shear stress of Centaurea calcitrapa cell suspension cultures grown in bioreactor. Biotechnology Letters 28, 431- 438.

Rodríguez-Huezo, M.E., Pedroza-Islas, R., Prado-Barragán, L.A., Beristain, C.I. and Vernon-Carter, E.J. (2004). Microencapsulation by spray-drying of multiple emulsions containing carotenoids. Journal of Food Science 69, E351-E359.

Rodríguez-Monroy, M. and Galindo, E. (1999). Broth rheology, growth and metabolite production of Beta vulgaris suspension culture: a comparative study between cultures grown in shake flasks and in a stirred tank. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 24, 687-693.

Román-Guerrero, A., Orozco-Villafuerte, J., Pérez-Orozco, J.P., Cruz-Sosa F., Jiménez-Alvarado, R. and Vernon-Carter, EJ. (2009). Application and evaluation of mesquite gum and its fractions as interfacial film formers and emulsifiers of orange peel-oil. Food Hydrocolloids 23, 708-713.

Ruíz-Ramos, J.O., Pérez-Orozco, J.P., Báez-González, J.G., Bázquez-Molina, E., Pérez-Alonso, C. and Vernon-Carter, E.J. (2006). Interrelationship between the viscoelastic properties and effective moisture diffusivity of emulsions with the water vapor permeability of edible films stabilized by mesquite gum-chitosan complexes. Carbohydrate Polymers 64, 355-363

Sánchez-Sampedro, M.A., Peláez, R. and Corchete, P. (2008). An arabinogalactan protein isolated from medium of cell suspension cultures of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaernt. Carbohydrate Polymers 71, 634-639.

Schlatmann J.E., Moreno P.R.H., Vinke J.L., ten Hoopen H.J.G., Verpoorte R. andHeijnen J.J. (1994). Effects of oxygen and nutrients limitation on ajmalicine production and related enzyme activities in high density cultures of Catharanthus roseus. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 44, 461- 468.

Serpe, M.D. and Nothnagel, E.A. (1994). Effects of Yariv phenylglycosides on rosa cell-suspensions-evidence for the involvement of arabinogalactan-proteins in cell proliferation. Planta 193, 542-50

Trejo-Espino, J.L., Rodríguez-Monroy, M. and Cruz-Sosa, F. (2009). Establecimiento de un cultivo de células en suspensión de Prosopis laevigata (Mezquite) para la producción de goma. Presentation OII-12. June 21- 26. Acapulco, Guerrero: XIII Congreso Nacional de Biotecnología y Bioingeniería.

Trejo-Tapia, G., Sepúlveda-Jiménez, G., Trejo-Espino, J.L., Cerda-García-Rojas, C.M., De la Torre, M. and Ramos-Valdivia A.C. (2007). Hydrodynamic stress induces monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid accumulation by Uncaria tomentosa (Will) D.C. cell suspension cultures via oxidative burst. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 98, 230-238.

Van Holst, G.J. and Clarke, A. (1985). Quantification of arabinogalactan-protein in plant extracts by single radial diffusion gel. Analytical Biochemistry 148, 446-450.

Vázquez-Ortíz, F.A., López-Franco, Y. and Goycoolea, F.M. (2006). Fractionation and characterization of the monosaccharides from mesquite P rosopis spp. and arabic gum by normal, bonded phase, HPLC. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Techniques 29, 1991-1999.

Verbeken, D., Dierckx, S. and Dewettinck, K. (2003). Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 63, 10-21.

Vernon-Carter, E.J., Gomez, S.A., Beristain, C.I., Mosqueira, G., Pedroza-Islas, R. y Moreno-Terrazas, R.C. (1996). Color degradation and coalescence kinetics of aztec marigold oleoresin-in-water emulsions stabilized by mesquite or arabic gums and their blends. Journal of Texture Studies 27, 625-641.

Vernon-Carter, E.J., Pedroza-Islas, R. y Beristain, C.I. (1998). Stability of Capsicum annuum oleoresin-in-water emulsions containing P rosopis and Acacia gums. Journal of Texture Studies 29, 553-567.

Vernon-Carter, E.J., Beristain, C.I and PedrozaIslas, R. (2000). Mesquite gum (P rosopis gum). In: Novel Macromolecules in Food Systems, (G. Doxastakis G and V. Hiosseoglu, eds.), Pp. 217-238. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Villagómez-Zavala, D.L., Gómez-Corona, C., San Martín-Martínez, E., Pérez-Orozco, J.P., Vernon-Carter, E.J. and PedrozaIslas, R. (2008). Comparative study of the mechanical properties of edible films made from single and blended hydrophilic biopolymer matrices. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 7, 263-273.

Xu, J, Shpak, E., Gu, T., Moo-Young, M. and Kieliszewski, M. (2005) Production of recombinant plant gum with tobacco cell culture in bioreactor and gum characterization. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 90, 578-588.

Zhao, J. and Verpoorte, R. (2007). Manipulating indole alkaloid production by Catharanthus roseus cell cultures in bioreactors: from biochemical processing to metabolic engineering. Phytochemistry Reviews 6, 435- 457.

Zhong, J.J. (2001). Biochemical Engineering of the Production of plant-Specific Secondary Metabolites by Cell Suspension Cultures. In: Plant Cells Advances in Biochemical Engineering Biotechnology, (J.J. Zhong, Ed.), Pp. 1-26. Springer, Germany.
How to Cite
Trejo-Espino, J., Rodríguez-Monroy, M., Vernon-Carter, E., & Cruz-Sosa, F. (2020). EMULSIFYING PROPERTIES OF THE GUM PRODUCED BY P ROSOP IS LAEV IGAT A (HUMB. & BONPL. EX WILLD) M.C. JOHNST (MESQUITE) CELLS SUSPENSION CULTURE IN BIOREACTOR. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 9(3), 251-260. Retrieved from http://www.rmiq.org/ojs311/index.php/rmiq/article/view/1781

Most read articles by the same author(s)