CARBO PROTEIN EXTRACTION FROM FERMENTED SHRIMP RESIDUES
Astaxanthin is the most abundant pigment in crustacean wastes. Due to its particular color, it can be used to pigment salmonids, such as rainbow trout, in aquaculture systems. Astaxanthin is bound to a protein, this association results in a pink-orange hue. Prawn waste, besides being a problem to Mexican ecology due to its spoilage in open air, is an excellent source of astaxanthin. Use of lactic fermentation to deproteinize the waste and stabilize the pigment is explored. Starters of lactic acid bacteria were selected according to their ability to decrease pH in less than 24 h. Four solvent systems and three extraction periods were tested in order to obtain the best extraction conditions. Astaxanthin concentration in the extract were analyzed by HPLC using a reverse phase column. Detachment of the protein from the pigment was carried out using commercial proteases. Results showed that a strain of Lactobacillus sp., isolated from fish was the most efficient to decrease pH. The optimal solvent system to extract astaxanthin was petroleum ether:acetone:water (15:75:10). Comparing extraction from fermented to non fermented wastes, fermented wastes gave a higher amount of astaxanthin. Commercial proteases gave a very efficient hydrolysis of the protein-pigment complex
Cano-López, A., Simpson, B. K. y Haard, N. F. (1987). Extraction of caroprotein from shrimp process wastes with the aid of trypsin from Atlantic cod. Journal of Food Science 52, 503-506.
Chen, H.M. y Meyers, S.P. (1982). Extraction of astaxanthin pigment from crawfish using a soy oil process. Journal of Food Science 47, 892-896.
Chen, H.M., Meyers, S.P. (1983). Ensilage treatment of crawfish waste for improvement of astaxanthin pigment extraction. Journal of Food Science 48, 1516-1521.
Cremades, O., Ponce, E., Corpas, R., Gutiérrez, J.F., Jover, M., Alvarez Ossorio, M., Parrado, J. y Bautista, J. (2001). Processing of crawfish (Procambrus clarkii) for the preparation of carotenoproteins and chitin. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 49, 5468-5472.
Guerrero, I., Zakaria, Z. y Hall, G.M. (1996). Lactic fermentation of prawn waste: comparison of commercial and isolated cultures. En: Advances in Chitin Science, pp. 399-406. A. Domard, A., Jeuniax, E., Muzzarelli, R., Roberts, G. (eds.). Editorial Jacques André. Francia..
Guillou, A., Khalil, M. y Adambounou, L. (1995). Effects of silage preservation on astaxanthin forms and fatty acid profiles of processed shrimp (Pandalus borealis) waste. Aquaculure 130, 351-360.
Hardy, R.W. y Torrisen, O.J. (1987). Carotenoid pigmentation of salmonids. Aquaculture Magazine 1, 8-14.
Han-Ching, L., T., Mauguin, S. y Mescle, J. F. (1992). Application of lactic acid fermentations. En: Fish Processing Technology. pp. 193-211.Hall, G. M (ed.). Chapman & Hall. Reino Unido.
Mejía, L.A., Hudson, E., De Mejía, E.G., Vázquez, F. (1988). Carotenoid content and Vitamin A activity of some common cultivars of Mexican peppers (Capsicum annum) as determined by HPLC. Journal of Food Science 53, 1448-1451.
Meyers y, S. P. y Bligh, D. (1981). Characterization of astaxanthin pigments from heat processed crawfish waste. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 29, 505-508.
Menasveta, P., Worawattanamateekul, W., Larscha, T. y Clark, J. (1993). Correction of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon Fabricius) coloration by astaxanthin. Aquaculure Engineering 12, 203-213.
Torrisen, O., Tidemann, E., Hansen, F. y Raa, J. (1981). Ensiling in acid-A method to stabilize astaxanthin in shrimp processing by products and improve uptake of this pigment by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Aquaculture 26, 77-83.
Zakaria, Z., Hall, G.M. y Shama, G. (1998). Lactic acid fermentation of scampi waste in a rotating horizontal bioreactor for chitin recovery. Process Biochemistry 11 (1), 1-6.
By publishing your paper in our journal you are also granting it the copyright of the information that it contains.