Effect of drying on the extraction yield of Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray essential oil

Keywords: oil essential; Luma chequen; drying; yield; micromorphology


This work studies the effect of drying at 40 °C of the leaves and stems of the species Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray on the extraction yield of its essential oil by steam distillation at a pilot scale. From the micromorphological evaluation at the moisture levels fresh state (72±1%), critical moisture (24±1%) and equilibrium moisture (8.2±0.5%), it is found that the tissues fold, the secretory cavities thin out, according to the lacunarity, the microstructure of the plant material exhibits greater uniformity at the critical moisture. For the extraction tests 18 levels of moisture were considered, keeping the packing factor at 54 Kg/m3. The maximum yield of 0.52 ± 0.01% (v/w) was reached when the moisture of the material was 22±1%, very close to the critical moisture. A first-order model provided a suitable fit to the extraction kinetic data for samples with different humidity levels. Based on the evaporation rate equation, a description of the microstructure of the material and the drying conditions, a model was developed which shows the evaporation mechanism to be dominant in both the drying process and in the extraction of essential oil.


Allain C. and Cloitre M. (1991). Characterizing the lacunarity of random and deterministic fractal sets. Phys. Rev. A 44, 3552. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.44.3552

Alves de Assis, A. L., Raupp Cipriano, R., Lorena Cuquel, F., and Deschamps, C. (2020). Effect of drying method and storage conditions on the essential oil yield and composition in Eugenia uniflora L. leaves. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Hortícolas, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.17584/rcch.2020v14i2.9281

An, K., Zhao, D., Wang, Z., Wu, J., Xu, Y., and Xiao, G. (2016). Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure. Food Chemistry, 197, 1292-1300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.033

Arenas, E. (2010). Técnica Histológica. [En línea]. Available: http://bct.facmed.unam.mx/wpcontent/uploads/2018/08/3_tecnica_histologica.pdf

Azor, J. R. (2016). El concepto de Lacunaridad como incentivo en la vinculación de la estadística y la informática con la ingeniería. En Álvarez, Ingrith; Sua, Camilo (Eds.), Memorias del II Encuentro Colombiano de Educación Estocástica (pp. 168-176). Bogotá, Colombia. http://acedest.org/2-encuentro/docs/Memorias_2ECEE.pdf

Bartzanas, T., Bochtis, D. D., Sørensen, C. G., Sapounas, A. A. and Green, O. (2010). A numerical modelling approach for biomass field drying. Biosystems Engineering, 106(4), 458-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2010.05.010

Berka-Zougali, B., Hassani, A., Besombes, C., and Allaf, K. (2010). Extraction of essential oils from Algerian myrtle leaves using instant controlled pressure drop technology. Journal of Chromatography A, 1217(40), 6134-6142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2010.07.080

Boutebouhart, H., Didaoui, L., Tata, S., and Sabaou, N. (2019). Effect of Extraction and Drying Method on Chemical Composition, and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antomicrobial Activities of Essential Oils from Salvia officinalis L. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 22(3), 717-727. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2019.1651223

Cabrera, C. E. (2019). Actividad antimicrobiana de un sistema a base de un extracto vegetal y tres aceites esenciales. Ciencia e Investigación, 22(1), 21-25. https://doi.org/10.15381/ci.v22i1.16811

Calla, M. O., Zamora, R. R. M., and Carvalho, J. C. T. (2016). Estudio fractal de la superficie de la hoja de la especie vegetal Copaifera sp. haciendo uso del Microscopio de Fuerza Atómica-AFM. Revista ECIPerú, 13(1), 7-7. https://doi.org/10.33017/RevECIPeru2016.0002/

Camelo-Méndez, G. A., Vanegas-Espinoza, P. E., Jiménez-Aparicio, A. R., Bello-Pérez, L. A., and Villar-Martínez, D. (2013). Morphometric characterization of chalkiness in mexican rice varieties by digital image analysis and multivariate discrimination. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, 12(3), 371-378. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Bio2407

Carhuapoma Yance, M., Bonilla R., P., Suarez C., S., Villa, R., and López G., S. (2006). Estudio de la composición química y actividad antioxidante del aceite esencial de Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray "Arrayán". Ciencia e Investigación, 8(2), 73-79. https://doi.org/10.15381/ci.v8i2.5306

Chávez-Magdaleno, M. E., Luque-Alcaraz, A. G., Gutierrez-Martínez, P., Cortez-Rocha, M. O., Burgos-Hernández, A., Lizardi-Mendoza, J., and Plascencia-Jatomea, M. (2018). Effect of Chitosan-pepper tree (Schinus Molle) essential oil Biocomposites on the growth kinetics, viability and Membrane integrity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, 17(1), 29-45. https://doi.org/10.24275/uam/izt/dcbi/revmexingquim/2018v17n1/Chavez

Ciccarelli, D., Garbari, F., and Pagni, A. M. (2008). The flower of Myrtus communis (Myrtaceae): Secretory structures, unicellular papillae, and their ecological role. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 203(1), 85-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2007.01.002

Crank J. 1975. The Mathematics of Diffusion. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Cussler E.L. (1984). Diffusion: mass transfer in fluid systems. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Dadazadeh, A., and Nourafcan, H. (2021). The Effect Of Different Essential Oil Extraction Methods On The Efficiency And Antibacterial Properties Of Myrtus Communis L. Leaves. International Journal of Modern Agriculture, 10(2), 4762-4775. http://modern-journals.com/index.php/ijma/article/view/1448

Datta, A. K. (2007). Porous media approaches to studying simultaneous heat and mass transfer in food processes. I: Problem formulations. Journal of food engineering, 80(1), 80-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.05.013

Dávila, J. (2004). Estudio experimental del efecto de la porosidad de partículas sobre lecho fluidizado a vacío empleando aire. Tesis de Licenciatura, Universidad de las Américas - Puebla, Puebla. Colección de Tesis Digitales. http://catarina.udlap.mx/u_dl_a/tales/documentos/lim/davila_n_jr/

Del Rosario-Santiago, J., Ruiz-Espinosa, H., Ochoa-Velasco, C. E., Escobedo-Morales, A., and Ruiz-López, I. I. (2022). Effect of shrinkage and concentration basis on water diffusivity estimation and oil transfer during deep-fat frying of foods. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 21(1), Alim2667-Alim2667. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Alim2667

Dima, C., and Dima, S. (2015). Essential oils in foods: extraction, stabilization, and toxicity. Current Opinion in Food Science, 5, 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs.2015.07.003

Esau, K. (1982). Anatomía de las Plantas con semilla. California, Estados Unidos: Hemisferio Sur. http://www.agro.unc.edu.ar/~wpweb/botaxo/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2016/08/Esau_Anatomia_de_las_plantas_con_semilla.pdf

Fernández, L. (2019). Principios activos del aceite esencial de Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray “Arrayan” y evaluación de su actividad antibacteriana. Tesis de Doctorado, Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Arequipa. Repositorio Institucional de UNAS. http://repositorio.unsa.edu.pe/handle/UNSA/9290

Freire, J. T., Da Silveira, A. M., and do Carmo Ferreira, M. (2012). Transport Phenomena In Particulate Systems. Bentham Science Publishers. https://doi.org/10.2174/97816080522711120101

Gavahian, M., Farahnaky, A., Javidnia, K., and Majzoobi, M. (2013). A novel technology for extraction of essential oil from Myrtus communis: ohmic-assisted hydrodistillation. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 25(4), 257-266. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2013.775676

Gonçalves, M. J., Cavaleiro, C., Proença da Cunha, A., and Salgueiro, L. R. (2011). Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Commercially Available Oil of Luma chequen. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 18(1), 108-110. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2006.9699402

Guenther, A. B., Monson, R. K., and Fall, R. (1991). Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observarvations with eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 96(D6), 10799-10808. https://doi.org/10.1029/91JD00960

Hawkinds, J.E. and Armstrong, G.T. (1954). Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Terpenes. III. The Vapor Pressures of α-Pinene and β-Pinene, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 76, 14, 3756-3759. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01643a051

Ho, Y. S., Harouna-Oumarou, H. A., Fauduet, H., and Porte, C. (2005). Kinetics and model building of leaching of water-soluble compounds of Tilia sapwood. Separation and Purification Technology, 45(3), 169-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2005.03.007

Karathanos,V. T.,Villalobos,G.,and Saravacos,G. D. (1990). Comparison of two methods of estimation of the effective moisture diffusivity from data. Journal of Food Science, 55(1),218–231. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1990.tb06056.x

Katekawa, M. E., and Silva, M. A. (2006). A review of drying models including shrinkage effects. Drying technology, 24(1), 5-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373930500538519

Kiranoudis, C. T., Maroulis, Z. B., and Marinos-Kouris, D. (1992). Model selection in air drying of foods. Drying Technology, 10(4), 1097-1106. https://doi.org/10.1080/07373939208916497

Kusuma, H. S., and Mahfud, M. (2017). The extraction of essential oils from patchouli leaves (Pogostemon cablin Benth) using a microwave air-hydrodistillation method as a new green technique. RSC Advances, 7(3), 1336-1347. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA25894H

Kusuma, H. S., and Mahfud, M. (2018). Kinetic studies on extraction of essential oil from sandalwood (Santalum album) by microwave air-hydrodistillation method. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 57(2), 1163-1172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2017.02.007

Ismanto, A. W., Kusuma, H. S., and Mahfud, M. (2018). Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from Melaleuca leucadendra L. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 156, p. 03007). EDP Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1051/matecconf/201815603007

Masango, P. (2005). Cleaner production of essential oils by steam distillation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13, 833-839. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.02.039

McCabe, W. L., and Smith, J. C. (2007). Operaciones unitarias en ingeniería química. México: McGraw-Hill/Interamericana Editores.

Meziane, I. A., Bali, N., Belblidia, N. B., Abatzoglou, N., and Benyoussef, E.-H. (2019). The first-order model in the simulation of essential oil extraction kinetics. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 15, 100226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jarmap.2019.100226

Moina, V. (2015). Actividad antibacteriana in vitro de Colutorios elaborados con aceites esenciales de Luma chequen A. Gray "Arrayán" y Mintostachis spicata (Benth). Epling "Yuraq Muña" frente a la cepa Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. Cusco: Universidad Nacional de San Antonio de Abad del Cuzco. Repositorio Institucional – UNSAAC. http://repositorio.unsaac.edu.pe/bitstream/handle/20.500.12918/146/253t20150050.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Moghrani, H., and Maachi, R. (2008). Valorization of Myrtus communis Essential Oil Obtained by Steam Driving Distillation. Asian Journal of Scientific Research, 1(5), 518-524. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajsr.2008.518.524

Monroy-Rodríguez, I., Gutiérrez-López, G. F., Hernández-Sánchez, H., López-Hernández, R. E., Mazón, M. C., Dorántes-Álvarez, L., and Alamilla-Beltrán, L. (2021). Surface roughness and textural image analysis, particle size and stability of microparticles obtained by microfluidization of soy protein isolate aggregates suspensions. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 20(2), 787-805. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Alim2311

Montoya Cadavid, G. d. (2010). Aceites esenciales. Una Alternativa de Diversificaión para el Eje Cafetero (Primera Edición ed.). Manizales: Universidad Nacional de Colombia. https://repositorio.unal.edu.co/bitstream/handle/unal/55532/9588280264.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Moreno, J. C., López, G., and Siche, R. (2010). Modelación y optimización del proceso de extracción de aceite esencial de Eucalipto (Eucaliptus globulus). Scientia Agropecuaria, 1(2), 147-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.17268/sci.agropecu.2010.02.05

Muchtar, M., Suciati, N., and Fatichah, C. (2016). Fractal dimension and lacunarity combination for plant leaf classification. Jurnal Ilmu Komputer dan Informasi, 9(2), 96-105. https://doi.org/10.21609/jiki.v9i2.385

Páramo, D., García-Alamilla, P., Salgado-Cervantes, M. A., Robles-Olvera, V. J., Rodríguez-Jimenes, G. C., and García-Alvarado, M. A. (2010). Mass transfer of water and volatile fatty acids in cocoa beans during drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 99(3), 276-283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2010.02.028

Pathare, P. B., and Sharma, G. P. (2006). Effective moisture diffusivity of onion slices undergoing infrared convective drying. Biosystems Engineering, 93(3), 285-291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2005.12.010

Prophet, E., Mills, B., Arrington, J., Leslie, M. and Sobin, H. (1995). Métodos Histotecnológicos. Washington.Registro de Patología, 55-59.

Ramos, I. N., Brandão, T. R., and Silva, C. L. M. (2003). Structural changes during air drying of fruits and vegetables. Food Science and Technology International, 9(3), 201-206. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1082013030335522

Retamales, H. A., and Scharaschkin, T. (2015). Comparative leaf anatomy and micromorphology of the Chilean Myrtaceae: Taxonomic and ecological implications. Flora-Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants, 217, 138-154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2015.10.005

Reynel, C., and Marcelo, J. (2009). Árboles de los ecosistemas forestales andinos. Manual de identificación de especies. Lima, Perú: Serie de Investigación y sistematización No. 9. Programa Regional ECONOBA - INTERCOOPERATION. https://issuu.com/helicongus/docs/arboles_de_los_ecosistemas_forestal

Rezzoug, S. A., Boutekedjiret, C., and Allaf, K. (2005). Optimization of operating conditions of rosemary essential oil extraction by a fast controlled pressure drop process using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 71(1), 9-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.10.044

Rosner, S., Heinze, B., Savi, T., and Dalla-Salda, G. (2019). Prediction of hydraulic conductivity loss from relative water loss: new insights into water storage of tree stems and branches. Physiologia Plantarum, 165(4), 843-854. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppl.12790

Ruiz, C., Díaz, C., and Rojas, R. (2015). Composición química de aceites esenciales de 10 plantas aromáticas peruanas. Revista de la Sociedad Química del Perú, 81(2), 81-94. https://doi.org/10.37761/rsqp.v81i2.10

Salcedo-Mendoza, J. G., Contreras-Lozano, K., García-López, A., and Fernandez-Quintero, A. (2016). Modelado de la cinética de secado del afrecho de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, 15(3), 883-891. http://rmiq.org/iqfvp/Pdfs/Vol.%2015,%20No.%203/Alim10/Alim10.html

Santacruz-Vázquez, V., Santacruz-Vázquez, C., Welti-Chanes, J., Farrera-Rebollo, R. R., Alamilla-Beltrán, L., Chanona-Pérez, J., and Gutiérrez-López, G. F. (2008). Effects of air-drying on the shrinkage, surface temperatures and structural features of apples slabs by means of fractal analysis. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, 7(1), 55-63. http://rmiq.org/iqfvp/Pdfs/Vol%207%20no%201/RMIQ_Vol7No1_7.pdf

Sotta, N. (2000). Plantas Aromáticas y Medicinales de la Región Arequipa. Arequipa, Perú: ONG El Taller.

Stashenko, E. E., Jaramillo, B. E., and Martínez, J. R. (2003). Comparación de la composición química y de la actividad antioxidante in vitro de los metabolitos secundarios volátiles de plantas de la familia Verbenaceae. Revista de la Académica Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, 27(105), 579-597. https://repositorio.accefyn.org.co/jspui/bitstream/001/594/1/105.pdf#page=105.

Stratakos, A. C., and Koidis, A. (2016). Methods for Extracting Essential Oils. Essential Oils in Food Preservation, Flavor and Safety, 31–38. doi:10.1016/b978-0-12-416641-7.00004-3

Talati, A. (2012) Extraction Methods of Natural Essential Oils. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.18744.34564

Thuwapanichayanan, R., Prachayawarakorn, S., and Soponronnarit, S. (2008). Drying characteristics and quality of banana foam mat. Journal of Food Engineering, 86(4), 573-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.11.008

Vallverdú, C., Vila, R., Tomi, F., Carhuapoma, M., and Casanova, J. (2006). Composition of the essential oil from leaves and twigs of Luma chequen. Flavour and Fragance Journal, 21(2), 241-243. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1565

Vieira de Souza, A. V., de Brito, D., Soares dos Santos, U., dos Passos Bispo, L., Casanova Turatti, I. C., Peporine Lopes, N. and Guedes da Silva Almeida, J. R. (2016). Influence of season, drying temperature and extraction time on the yield and chemical composition of ‘marmeleiro’ (Croton sonderianus) essential oil. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 29(1), 76-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2016.1178183

How to Cite
Borja-Málaga, M., Jiménez-Ochoa, A., Medina-de Miranda, E., & Escobedo-Vargas, F. (2022). Effect of drying on the extraction yield of Luma chequen (Molina) A. Gray essential oil. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 21(2), Proc2623. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Proc2623
Process engineering