Evaluation of nixtamalization temperature and adding nejayote solids on textural and color properties of dough and tortillas

  • F.J. Guzmán-Rodríguez
  • R.A. Peña-Reyes
  • L. Gómez-Ruiz
  • G.A. Ramírez-Romero
  • A.E. Cruz-Guerrero
Keywords: corn, dough, nejayote, nixtamalization, tortilla

Abstract

Nixtamalization is a process given to corn kernels prior to the elaboration of dough and tortillas. It provides adequate texture to maize products but implies a high energy input and releases a considerable volume of waste effluent (nejayote). In this work, the effect of temperature (60 and 90 °C) and the addition of nejayote solids, on textural properties and color of corn dough and tortillas, were studied. It was observed that after nixtamalization at 60 °C the textural properties of corn products did not show a significant difference compared to those at 90 °C. Regarding the addition of nejayote solids, the textural and color properties of the dough and tortillas were not modified, neither at 60 nor at 90 °C, obtaining products with the same attributes as the commercial products. This study will contribute to considerable energy savings in the process and a decrease in solids of the waste effluents can be achieved.

References

Acosta-Estrada, B.A., Lazo-Vélez, M.A., Nava-Valdez, Y., Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A. and Serna-Saldívar, S.O. (2014). Improvement of dietary fiber, ferulic acid and calcium contents in pan bread enriched with nejayote food additive from white maize (Zea mays). Journal of Cereal Science 60, 264-269. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2014.04.006

AOAC. (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (18 ed.). AOAC International, MD, USA.

Balderas-López, J.M., Prinyawiwatkul, W., Arámbula-Villa, G., Hernández-Rosas, F., Leyva-Ovalle, O.R., Houbron, E.P. and Herrera-Corredor, J.A. (2018). Prevention of the development of polluting characteristics in cooking water residue from nixtamalisation of corn by removing solid lime particles. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 54, 705-714. http://doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.13983

Campechano-Carrera, E., Figueroa-Cárdenas, J.D., Arámbula-Villa, G., Martínez-Flores, H. E., Jiménez-Sandoval, S.J. and Luna-Bárcenas, J.G. (2011). New ecological nixtamalisation process for tortilla production and its impact on the chemical properties of whole corn flour and wastewater effluents. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 47, 564–571. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.2011.02878.x

Castro-Muñoz, R., Cerón-Montes, G., Barragán-Huerta, B and Yáñez-Fernández, J. (2015). Recovery of carbohydrates from nixtamalization wastewaters (nejayote) by ultrafiltration. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 14, 733-744.

Contreras-Jiménez, B.L., Morales-Sánchez, E., Reyes-Vega, M.L. and Gaytán-Martínez, M. (2014). Propiedades funcionales de harinas de maíz nixtamalizado obtenidas por extrusión a baja temperatura. CyTA – Journal of Food 12, 263-270. http://doi.org/10.1080/19476337.2013.840804

Enríquez-Castro, C.M., Torres-Chávez, P.I., Ramírez-Wong, B., Ledesma-Osuna, A.I., Quintero-Ramos, A., López-Cervantes, J. and Silvas-García, M.I. (2018). Physicochemical and rheological changes of starch in nixtamalization processes: Extrusion as an alternative to produce corn flour. In: Extrusion of metals polymers and food products, (S.Z. Qamar, ed.), Pp. 650-1009. ItechOpen, London.

García-Armenta, E., Caro-Corrales, J., Cronin, K., Reyes-Moreno, C. and Gutiérrez-Dorado, R. (2020). Heat transfer simulation in corn kernel during nixtamalization process. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 19, 745-754.

García-Zamora, J.L., Sánchez-González, M., Lozano, J.A., Jáuregui, J., Zayas, T., Santacruz, V., Hernández F. and Torres, E. (2015). Enzymatic treatment of wastewater from the corn tortilla industry using chitosan as an adsorbent reduces the chemical oxygen demand and ferulic acid content. Process Biochemistry 50, 125-133. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.procbio.2014.10.012

Gasca-Mancera, J.C. and Casas-Alencáster, N.B. (2007). Adición de harina de maíz nixtamalizado a masa fresca de maíz nixtamalizado. Efecto en las propiedades texturales de masa y tortilla. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 6, 317-328.

Gutiérrez-Uribe, J.A., Rojas-García, C., García-Lara, S. and Serna-Saldivar, S.O. (2010). Phytochemical analysis of wastewater (nejayote) obtained after lime-cooking of different types of maize kernels processed into masa for tortillas. Journal of Cereal Science 52, 410-416. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2010.07.003

Gómez-Fernández, R., Faccinetto-Beltrán, P., Orozco-Sánchez, N., Pérez-Carrillo, E., Santacruz, A. and Jacobo-Velázquez D. (2021). Physicochemical properties and sensory acceptability of sugar-free dark chocolateformulations added with probiotics. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 20, 697-709.

Liu, Y., Yu, J., Copeland, L., Wang, S. and Wang, S. (2019). Gelatinization behavior of starch: Reflecting beyond the endotherm measured by differential scanning calorimetry. Food Chemistry 284, 53-59. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.095

Makoto, K., Randi, M., Masaya, M., Toshiyuki, S., Takashi, M., Anuraga, J. and Naoto I. (2021). Validation of a phenol-sulfuric acid method in a microplate format for the quantification of soluble sugars in ruminant feeds. Animal Science Journal 92, 1-7.

Manresa-González, A. and Vicente, I. (2007). El color en la industria de los alimentos (1st ed.). Editorial Universitaria, La Habana.

Niño-Medina, G., Carvajal-Millán, E., Lizardi, J., Rascon-Chu, A., Marquez-Escalante, J. A., Gardea, A., Martinez-Lopez, A.L. and Guerrero, V. (2009). Maize processing waste water arabinoxylans: gelling capability and cross-linking content. Food Chemistry 115, 1286-1290. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.01.046

Peña-Reyes, R.A., Ramírez-Romero, G.A., Fernández-Perrino, F.J. and Cruz-Guerrero, A.E. (2017). Effect of nixtamalization processing temperature in maize hydration and the textural properties of masa and tortillas. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 41, e13136. http://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13136

Román-Brito, J.A., Agama-Acevedo, E., Méndez-Montealvo, G. and Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2007). Textural studies of stored corn tortillas with added xanthan gum. Cereal Chemistry 84, 502-505. http://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM-84-5-0502

Ruiz-Gutiérrez, M.G., Quintero-Ramos, A., Mélendez-Pizarro, C.O., Talamás-Abbud, R., Barnard, J., Márquez-Melendez, R. and Lardizábal-Gutiérrez, D. (2012). Nixtamalization in two steps with different calcium salts and the relationship with chemical texture and thermal properties in masa and tortilla. Journal of Food Engineering 35, 772-783. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4530.2010.00627.x

Salinas-Moreno, Y. and Aguilar-Modesto, L. (2010). Efecto de la dureza del grano de maíz (Zea mays L.) sobre el rendimiento y calidad de la tortilla. Ingeniería Agrícola y Biosistemas 2, 5-11.

Salinas-Moreno, Y., Castillo-Linares, E.B., Vázquez-Carrillo, G. and Buendía-González, M.O. (2011). Blends of waxy with normal maize and their effect on tortilla quality. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Agrícolas 2, 689-702. http://doi.org/10.29312/remexca.v2i5.1618

Sánchez-Madrigal, M.A., Quintero-Ramos, A., Martínez-Bustos, F., Meléndez-Pizarro, C. O. and Ruiz-Gutiérrez, M.G. (2014). Effect of different calcium sources on the antioxidant stability of tortilla chips from extruded and nixtamalized blue corn (Zea mays L.) flours. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 49, 578–586. http://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612014000100021

Sebastián-Nicolás, J. Cruz-Guerrero, A., Castañeda-Ovando, A., Vázquez-Rodríguez, G., Hernández-Hernández, H., Lucho-Constantino, C. and González-Olivares, L. (2020) Enrichment of lactoferrin by a symple process based on solid phase extraction. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 19, 251-261.

Sierra-Macías, M., Palafox-Caballero, A., Vázquez-Carrillo, G., Rodríguez-Montalvo, F. and Espinosa-Calderón, A. (2010). Caracterización agronómica calidad industrial y nutricional de maíz para el trópico mexicano. Agronomía Mesoamericana 21, 21-29.

Suhendro, E.L., Almeida, H.E., Rooney, L.W., Waniska, R.D. and Moreira, R.G. (1999). Use of extensibility to measure corn tortilla texture. Cereal Chemistry 76, 536-540. http://doi.org/10.1094/CCHEM.1999.76.4.536

Vacio-Muro, K., Lozano-Alvarez, J., Sánchez-González, M., Chávez-Vela, N., Torres-Ramírez, E. and Jáuregui-Rincón, J. (2020). Removal of nejayote contaminants with alginate and chitosan. Revista Internacional de Contaminación Ambiental 36, 497-515. https://doi.org/10.20937/RICA.53185

Valderrama-Bravo, C., López-Ramírez, Y., Jiménez-Ambriz, S., Oaxaca-Luna, A., Domínguez-Pacheco, A., Hernández-Aguilar, C. and Moreno-Martínez, E. (2015). Changes in chemical viscoelastic and textural properties of nixtamalized dough with nejayote. Food Science and Technology 61, 496-502. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2014.12.038

Valderrama-Bravo, C., Cornejo-Villegas, M., Zambrano-Zaragoza, M., Domínguez-Hernández, M., Zepeda-Bautista, R. and Oaxaca-Luna, J. (2020). Physicochemical characterization of flours and rheological and textural changes of masa and tortillas obtained from maize fertilized with nejayote and ovine manure. International Agrophysics 34, 241-252.

Vernon‐Carter, E., Alvarez‐Ramirez, J., Meraz, M., Bello‐Perez, L. and Garcia‐Diaz, S. (2020). Canola oil/candelilla wax oleogel improves texture, retards staling and reduces in vitro starch digestibility of maize tortillas. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 100, 1238-1245.

Published
2022-06-27
How to Cite
Guzmán-Rodríguez, F., Peña-Reyes, R., Gómez-Ruiz, L., Ramírez-Romero, G., & Cruz-Guerrero, A. (2022). Evaluation of nixtamalization temperature and adding nejayote solids on textural and color properties of dough and tortillas. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 21(2), Alim2737. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Alim2737
Section
Food Engineering

Most read articles by the same author(s)