Identification of a Colletotrichum species from mango fruit and its in vitro control by GRAS compounds

  • C.L. Moreno-Hernández
  • M.L. Zambrano-Zaragoza
  • R.M. Velázquez-Estrada
  • J.A. Sánchez-Burgos
  • P. Gutierrez-Martinez Tecnológico Nacional de México/I.T.Tepic
Keywords: Mangifera indica, anthracnose, postharvest fungi, in vitro control, GRAS


The fungus Colletotrichum sp. is the causal agent of anthracnose in mango fruit and leads to substantial postharvest losses (>30 %). Efficient control agents continue to be investigated to reduce the incidence of this pathogen, preferably of a biological-organic nature. The objective of this work was to evaluate the in vitro application of commercial-grade generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds as chitosan, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and peracetic acid, in the control of Colletotrichum species isolated from mango fruit. The application of commercial chitosan (1.5 % and 2.0 %) confirmed its antifungal effect, with an average inhibition of 34 %, no significant difference was shown with respect to reactive grade chitosan. Hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and peracetic acid completely inhibited the development of C. asianum at concentrations > 1.0 %. Each GRAS agent caused morphological damage to the spores, including loss of turgidity, intracellular disorder, effusion of liquid from the cytoplasm, and total loss of integrity. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the damage to the mycelia, with collapsed and dehydrated structures due to exposure to the control agents. Overall, commercial GRAS agents showed an in vitro control effect on the growth of C. asianum at different stages of their development.


Abd-AllA, M.A., Abd-El-Kader, M., Abd-El-Kareem, M.F. and El-Mohamedy, R.S.R. (2011). Evaluation of lemongrass, thyme and peracetic acid against gray mold of strawberry fruits. Journal Of Applied Sciences Research 7(6), 1775–87.

Abd-El-Kareem, F. and Abd-El-Latif, F.M. (2014). Acetic acid vapours for controlling tomato root rot disease under greenhouse conditions. Journal of applied sciences research 10(1), 32–36.

Alawlaqi, M.M. and Alharbi, A.A. (2014). Impact of acetic acid on controlling tomato fruit decay. Life Science Journal 11, 114–19.

Alvarez, L.V., Hattori, Y., Deocaris, C.C., Mapanao, C.P., Bautista, A.B., Cano, M.J.B., Naito, K., Kitabata, S., Motohashi, K. and Nakashima, C. (2020). Colletotrichum Asianum causes anthracnose in Philippine mango cv. Carabao. Australasian Plant Disease Notes 15(1), 1–5.

Benatar, G.V. and Wibowo, A. (2021). First report of Colletotrichum asianum associated with mango fruit anthracnose in Indonesia. Crop Protection 141, 1–17.

Berumen-Guerrero, L., Ortega-Hernández, E., Gastélum-Estrada, A., Hurtado-Romero, A.,

Navarro-López, D., Benavides, J. and Jacobo-Velázquez, D.A. (2020). Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química. Chitosan enhances the production of antioxidant phenolic compounds in carrot through a synergistic effect with wounding stress. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 12(3), 505–511.

Coronado-Partida, L.D., Chávez-Magdaleno, M.E., Chacón-López, M.A. and Gutiérrez-Martínez. P. (2017). Efecto del quitosano para el control in vitro de Colletotrichum sp. asilado de mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Tommy Atkins. Biotecnología y Sustentabilidad 1, 72–77.

Cortés-Rivera, H.J., Blancas-Benitez, F.J., del Carmen Romero-Islas, L., Gutiérrez-Martinez, P. and González-Estrada, R.R. (2019). In vitro evaluation of residues of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) aqueous extracts, against the fungus Penicillium italicum. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 31(8), 613–617.

El Ghaouth, A., Arul, J. and A. Asselin. (1992). In: Brine CJ, Sandford PA, Zikakis JP ed. Advances in chitin and chitosan. London, Elsevier Science. Potential Use of Chitosan in Postharvest Preservation of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables.

Gálvez-Marroquín, L.A., Martínez-Bolaños, M., Cruz-Chávez, M.A., Ariza-Flores, R., Cruz-López, J.A., Magaña-Lira, N., Cruz de la Cruz, L.L. and Ariza-Hernández, F.J. (2022). Inhibition of mycelial growth and conidium germination of Colletotrichum sp. for organic and inorganic products. Agro Productividad 15(2), 25–32. v15i2.2051

Guerber, J.C., Liu, B., Correll, J.C., and Johnston, P.R. (2003). Characterization of diversity in Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato by sequence analysis of two gene introns, mtDNA and intron RFLPs, and mating compatibility. Mycologia 95(5), 872–895.

Gutiérrez-Martínez, P., Bautista-Baños, S., Berúmen-Varela, G., Ramos-Guerrero, A. and Hernández-Ibañez, A. M. (2017). In vitro response of Colletotrichum to chitosan. Effect on incidence and quality on tropical fruit. Enzymatic expression in mango. Acta Agronomica 66(2), 282–89.

Harwood, A.J. (Ed.). (1996). Basic DNA and RNA protocols (Vol. 79). Totowa, NJ: Humana press.

Herrera-González, J.A., Hernández-Sánchez, D.A., Bueno-Rojas, D.A., Ramos-Bell, S., Velázquez-Estrada, R.M., Bautista-Rosales, P.U. and Gutierrez-Martinez, P. (2022). Effect of commercial chitosan on in vitro inhibition of Colletotrichum siamense, fruit quality and elicitor effect on postharvest avocado fruit. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 21(1), 1–5.

Karunanayake, K.O.L.C., Liyanage, K.C.M., Jayakody, L.K.R.R. and Somaratne. S. (2020). Basil oil incorporated beeswax coating to increase shelf life and reduce anthracnose development in mango cv. Willard. Ceylon Journal of Science 49(5), 355–61.

Kitis, M. 2004. Disinfection of wastewater with peracetic acid: a review. Environment International 30, 47–55.

López-Mora, L.I., Gutiérrez-Martínez, P., Bautista-Baños, S., Jiménez-García, L.F., and Zavaleta-Mancera, H.A. (2013). Evaluación de la actividad antifúngica del quitosano en Alternaria alternata y en la calidad del mango ‘Tommy Atkins’ durante el almacenamiento. Revista Chapingo Serie Horticultura 19(3), 315–331.

Lopez-Moya, F., Suarez-Fernandez, M., and Lopez-Llorca, L.V. (2019). Molecular mechanisms of chitosan interactions with fungi and plants. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, 1–15.

Montecalvo, M.P., Opina, O.S., Dalisay, T.U. and Esguerra. E.B. (2019). Efficacy of postharvest treatments in reducing stem end rot of ‘Carabao’ Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit. Philippine Journal of Crop Science (PJCS) 44(1), 36–43.

Mustari, N., Rasal-Monir, M.D., Sani, M.N.H., Hasan, M.M., Biswas, S., Hossain, M.S. and Malek, M. (2020). Effet of indigenous techniques on postharvest quality and shelf life of mango. Journal of Biology and Nature 11(3), 22–31.

Nandi, M., Pervez, Z., Alam, M.S., Islam, M.S. and Mahmud, M.R. (2017). Research article effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on health and quality of chilli seed. International Journal of Plant Pathology 1–6.

Nelson, S.C. (2008). Mango Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Plant Disease 48, 1–9.

Ochoa-Jiménez, V., Berumen-Varela, G., Chacón-López, M. and Gutiérrez-Martínez, P. (2015). Analysis of some mechanisms of inhibition by chitosan in cell germination of Colletotrichum sp. isolated from banana fruits (Musa sapientum). Part IV: Food and Food Microbiology. Advances in Science, Biotechnology and Safety of Foods. Edi: Asociación Mexicana de Ciencias de los Alimentos, A.C. 321-326.

Palou, L., Ali, A., Fallik, E. and Romanazzi, G. (2016). GRAS, plant-and animal-derived compounds as alternatives to conventional fungicides for the control of postharvest diseases of fresh horticultural produce. Postharvest Biology and Technology 122, 41-52.

Palou, L. (2018). Postharvest treatments with GRAS salts to control fresh fruit decay. Horticulture 4(46), 1–15.

Qin, G., Liu, J., Cao, B., Li, B. and Tian, S. 2011. Hydrogen peroxide acts on sensitive mitochondrial proteins to induce death of a fungal pathogen revealed by proteomic analysis. PLoS ONE 6(7), 1-14.

Ramos-Guerrero, A., González-Estrada, R.R., Romanazzi, G., Landi, L. and Gutiérrez-Martínez, P. (2020). Effects of chitosan in the control of postharvest anthracnose of soursop (Annona muricata) fruit. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 19(1): 99-108.

Ramírez-Benítez, J.E., Rodríguez-Ávila, N.L., Lizama-Uc, G., Domínguez May, Á.V., Guerrero Turriza, H.O., Herrera-Flores, J.R., and Malerva Díaz, A. (2021). Evaluation of the potentialcontrol ofnatural compounds against anthracnose in mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. tommy atkins). Horticulture International Journal 5(2), 43–49.

Ramos-Guerrero, A., González-Estrada, R.R., Hanako-Rosas, G., Bautista-Baños, S., Acevedo-Hernández, G., Tiznado-Hernández, M. E. and Gutiérrez-Martínez, P. (2018). Use of inductors in the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Rhizopus stolonifer isolated from soursop Fruits: in vitro tests. Food Science and Biotechnology 27(3), 755–63.

Rayón-Díaz, E., Birke-Biewendt, A.B., Velázquez-Estrada, R.M., González-Estrada, R.R., Ramírez-Vázquez, M., Rosas-Saito, G. H. and Gutierrez-Martinez, P. (2021). Sodium Silicate and Chitosan: an alternative for the in vitro control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from papaya (Carica papaya L.). Revista Bio Ciencias 8(2595), 1-13.

Sehirli, S., Karabulut, O.A., Ilhan, K., and Sehirli, A. (2020). Use and Efficiency of Disinfectants within a Hydrocooler System for Postharvest Disease Control in Sweet Cherry. International Journal of Fruit Science 20(S3), S1590–S1606.

Shah, S, and Hashmi, M. S. (2020). Chitosan–aloe vera gel coating delays postharvest decay of mango fruit. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology 61(2), 279–289.

SIAP, (2019). Panorama Agroalimentario 2019. Avaiable at: Accesed: August 10, 2021.

Tovar-Pedraza, J.M., Mora-Aguilera, J.A., Nava-Diaz, C., Lima, N.B., Michereff, S.J., Sandoval-Islas, J.S., Câmara, M.P.S., Téliz-Ortiz, D. and Leyva-Mir, S.G. (2020). Distribution and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum species associated with Mango anthracnose in Mexico. Plant Disease 100, 123–29.

Valenzuela-Ortiz, G., Gaxiola-Camacho, S.M., San-Martín-hernández, C., Martínez-Téllez, M.Á., Aispuro-Hernández, E., Lizardi-Mendoza, J., and Quintana-Obregón, E.A. (2022). Chitosan Sensitivity of Fungi Isolated from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) with Anthracnose. Molecules 27, 1244.

Weir, B.S., Johnston, P.R. and Damm. U. (2012). The Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex. Studies in Mycology 73, 115-80.

White, T.J., Bruns, T.D., Lee, S.B. and Taylor, J.W. (1990). Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In PCR protocol: a guide to methods and applications 18(1), 315–322.

Wu, C.J., Chen, H.K., and Ni, H.F. (2020). Identification and characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with mango anthracnose in Taiwan. European Journal of Plant Pathology 157: 1–15.

Xing, Y., Yi, R., Yang, H., Xu, Q., Huang, R., Tang, J., Li, X., Liu, X., Wu, L., Liao, X., Bi, X. Yu, J. (2021). Antifungal effect of chitosan/nano-TiO2 composite coatings against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cladosporium oxysporum and Penicillium steckii. Molecules 26, 4401.

Zakawa, N.N., Oyebanji, E.O., Timon, D. and Batta, K. (2020). Anti-fungal activities of aqueous leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. on Mangifera indica L. post-harvest fruit-rot pathogens from some markets in Yola North, Adamawa State. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 9(6), 1675–87.

Zambrano-Zaragoza, M.L., Mercado-Silva, E., Gutiérrez-Cortez, E., Cornejo-Villegas, M. A. and Quintanar-Guerrero, D. (2014). The effect of nano-coatings with α-tocopherol and vanthan gum on shelf-life and browning index of fresh-cut “Red delicious” apples. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 22, 188–96.

How to Cite
Moreno-Hernández, C., Zambrano-Zaragoza, M., Velázquez-Estrada, R., Sánchez-Burgos, J., & Gutierrez-Martinez, P. (2022). Identification of a Colletotrichum species from mango fruit and its in vitro control by GRAS compounds. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 21(3), Bio2777.

Most read articles by the same author(s)