High-pressure homogenization and maltodextrins mixtures to miccroencapsulate vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) extract through freeze-drying

  • I.O. Ocampo-Salinas Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • A Jiménez-Aparicio Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • M.J. Perea-Flores Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • A. Tapia-Ochoategui Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • M.P. tephen Whitaker Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • C. Jiménez-Martínez Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • D.I. Téllez-Medina Instituto Politécnico Nacional
  • G. Dávila-Ortíz Instituto Politécnico Nacional
Keywords: vanillin, maltodextrins, microfluidization, encapsulation efficiency, microstructure


Microfluidization followed by encapsulation through freeze-drying was performed in order to assess the effect of high pressure homogenization (70 MPa, one and two cycles) and the coating material composed of maltodextrins (MD) mixtures with different dextrose equivalent (DE) values, DE 10 (MD10) and DE 20 (MD20) at 10% (w/w) total solids content, on the feasibility of concentrated vanilla extract (VE) encapsulation. The rheology of five different formulations was determined before microfluidization, while particle size was determined after such processing stage. After freezedrying, it was determined the encapsulation effciency (%EE), also the microcapsules were analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-deWaele models were found to adequately describe the rheology of formulations so that the consistency coeffcient increased with content of MD10. The particle size was markedly lowest for the formulation containing only MD10; this formulation presented a semi-crystalline X-ray pattern while formulations containing MD20 indicated an amorphous pattern and glass transition temperature in the order of 65 °C. MD20-MD10 mixtures 90:10 and 95:05 reported the highest %EE after one microfluidization cycle. In the present work, it was possible to obtain matrix-type microcapsules of VE with high %EE (>95%).


Adhikari, B., Howes, T., Sherestha, A. and Bhandari, B.R. (2007). Effect of surface tension and viscosity on the surface stickiness of carbohydrate and protein solution. Journal of Food Engineering 79, 1136-1143.

AOAC. (2005). Methods of Analysis (18th 375 ed.). Association of Ocial Analytical Chemist, Washington, D.C.

Avaltroni, F., Bouquerand, P. and Normand, V. (2004). Maltodextrin molecular weight distribution influence on the glass transition temperature and viscosity in aqueous solutions. Carbohydrate Polymeres 58, 323-334.

Baranauskiene, R., Bylaite, E., Zukauskaite, J. and Venskutonis, R.P. (2007). Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage. Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry 55, 3027-3036.

Biliaderis, C.G., Page, C.M., Maurice, T.J. and Juliano, B.O. (1986). Thermal Characterization of rice starches: a polymeric approach to phase transitions of granular starch. Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry 34, 6-14.

Bromiley, P. and Thacker, N. (2002). The effects of an arcsin square root transform on a binomial distributed quantity. TINA memo, 2002-2007. Buera, P., Schebor, C., and Elizalde, B. (2005). Effects of carbohydrate crystallizatin on stability of dehydrated foods and ingredient formulations. Journal of Food Engineering 67, 157-165.

Cano-Sarmiento C., Monroy-Villagrana A., Alamilla-Beltr´an L., Hern´andez-S´anchez H., Cornejo-Maz´on M., T´ellez-Medina D.I., Jim´enez-Mart´ınez C. and Guti´errez-L´opez G.F. (2014). Micromorphometric characteristics of -tocopherol emulsions obtained by microfluidization. Revista Meicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 13, 201-212.

Che Man, Y., B., Irwandi, J. and Abdullah, W. J. (1999). Eect of dierent types of maltodextrins and drying methods on physicchemical and sensory properties of encapsulated durian flavor. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79, 1075-1080.

Chetana, R., Krishnamurphy, S. and Yella Reddy, S. (2004). Rheological behavior of syrups containing sugar substitutes. European Food Research and Technology 218, 345-348.

Corveleyn, S. and Remon J.P. (1996). Maltodextrins as lyoprotectants in the lyophilization of a model protein, LDH. Pharmaceutical Research 3, 146-150.

Da Costa, S.B., Duarte, C., Bourbon, A.I., Pinheiro, A.C., Serra, A.T., Martins, M.M., Janu´ario, M.I.N., Vicente, A.A., Delgadillo, I. and Duarte, C. (2012). Effect of the matrix system in the delivery and in vitro bioactivity of microencapsulated Oregano essential oil. Journal of Food Engineering 110, 190-199.

Dickinson, M.E., Bearman, G., Tille, S., Lansford, R. and Fraser, S.E. (2001). Multi-spectral imaging and linear unmixing add a whole new dimensions to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy. Bioimaging 31, 1272-1278.

Dokic, P., Jakovljevic, J. and Dokic-Baucal, L. (1998). Molecular characteristics of maltodextrins and rheological behavior of diluted and concentrated solutions. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 141, 435-440.

Dokic, L., Jakovljevic, J. and Dokic, P. (2004). Relation between viscous characteristics and dextrose equivalent of maltodextrins. Starch-St¨arke 56, 520-525.

Dom´ınguez-Hern´andez, C.R., Garc´ıa-Alvarado, M.A., Garc´ıa-Galindo, H.S., Salgado-Cervantes, M.A. and Beristain, C.I. (2016). Stability, antioxidant activity and bioavility of nano-emulsified astaxanthin. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 15, 457-468.

Fang, Z. and Bhandari, B. (2010). Encapsulation of polyphenols-a review. Trends in Food Science and Technology 21, 510-523.

Flores-Miranda, G.A., Valencia del Toro, G. and Ya˜nes-Fern´andez. (2015). Stability Evaluation of ?carotene nanoemulsions prepared by homogenization-emulsification process using stearic acid as oil phase. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 14, 667-680.

Galmarini, M.V., Schebor, C., Zamora, M.C. and Chirife, J. (2009). The effect of trehalose, sucrose and maltodextrin addition on physicochemical and sensory aspects of freezedried strawberry puree. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44, 1869-1876.

Goubet, I., Le Quere, J.-L. and Voilley, A. (1998). Retention of aroma compounds by carbohydrates: influence of their physicochemical characteristics and of their physical state. A review. Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry 46, 1981-1990.

Gu, F., Xu, F., Tan, L., Wu, H., Chu, Z. and Wang, Q. (2012). Optimization of enzymatic process for vanillin extraction using response surface methodology. Molecules 17, 8753-8761.

Harnkarnsujarit, N., Charoenrein, S. and Roos, Y.H. (2012). Microstructure formation of maltodextrin and sugar matrices in freeze-dried systems. Carbohydrate Polymers 88, 734-742.

Hern´andez-Hern´andez, H.M., Chanona-P´erez, J.J., Calder´on-Dom´ınguez, G., Perea-Flores, M.J., Mendoza-P´erez, J.A., Vega, A., Ligero, P., Palacios-Gonz´alez, E. and Farrera-Rebollo, R.R. (2014). Evaluation of agave fiber delignification by means of microscopy techniques and image analysis. Microscoy and Microanalysis 20, 1436-1446.

Homan, P.G. and Zapf C.M. (2011). Flavor, quality, and authentication, In: Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology, Havkin-Frenkel, D. and Belanger, F. (Eds.). Blackwell Publishing, Ltd, UK, pp. 141-163.

Holgado, F., Marquez-Ruiz, G., Dobarganes, C. and Velasco, J. (2013). Influence of homogenization conditions and drying method on physicochemical properties of dehydrated emulsions containing different solid components. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 48, 1498-1508.

Jadeja, G., Maheshwari, R. and Naik, S. (2012). Pressurized liquid extraction of natural flavor from Vanilla planifolia Andrews. San Francisco, USA. 10th International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids.

Jafari, S.M., He, Y. and Bhandari, B. (2007a). Effectiveness of encapsulating biopolymers to produce sub-micron emulsions by high energy emulsification techniques. Food Research International 40, 862-873.

Jafari, S.M., He, Y. and Bhandari, B. (2007b). Optimization of nano-emulsions productions by microfluidization. European Food Research and Technology 225, 733-741.

Jeon, Y.-J., Vasanthan, T., Temelli, F. and Song, B.- K. (2003). The suitability of barley and corn starches in their native and chemically modified forms for volatile meat flavor encapsulation. Food Research International 36, 349-355.

Ji J., Zhang J., Chen J., Wang Y., Dong N., Hu C., Chen H., Li G., Pan X. and Wu C. (2015). Preparation and stabilization of a emulsions stabilized by mixed sodium caseinate and soy protein isolate. Food Hydrocolloids 51, 156-165.

Jun-xia, X., Hai-yan, Y. and Jian, Y. (2011). Microencapsulation of sweet orange oil by complex coacervation with soybean protein isolate/gum Arabic. Food Chemistry 125, 1267-1272.

Kaushik, V. and Roos, Y.H. (2007). Limonene encapsulation in freeze-drying of gum Arabicsucrose-gelatin systems. LWT- Food Science and Technology 40, 1381-1391.

Liu, Y., Bhandari, B. and Zhou, W. (2006). Glass transition and enthalpy relaxation of amorphous food saccharides: a review. Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry 54, 5701-5717

Madene, A., Jacquot, M., Scher, J. and Desobry, S. (2006). Flavour encapsulation and controlled release - a review. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 41, 1-21.

Marcotte, M., Taherian Hoshahili, A.R. and Ramaswamy, H.S. (2001). Rheological properties of selected hydrcolloids as a function of concentration and temperature. Food Research International 34, 695-703.

Menczel, J.D., Judovits, L., Prime, R.B., Bair, H.E., Reading, M. and Swier, S. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (2009). In: Thermal analysis of polymers. Fundamentals and applications. Menczel J.D and Prime R.B (Eds). Wiley and Sons publications. Nueva Jersey. EUA. Milanovic, J., Manojlovic, V., Levic, S., Rajic, N., Nedovic, V. and Bugarski, B. (2010). Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax. Sensors 10, 901-912.

Monroy-Villagrana A., Cano-Sarmiento C., Alamilla-Beltr´an L., Hern´andez-S´anchez H. and Guti´errez-L´opez G.F. (2014). Coupled Taguchi-RSM optimization of the conditions to emulsify-tocopherol in an arabic gummaltodextrin matrix by microfluidization. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımmica 13, 679-688.

Najifi, M., Kadkhodace, R. y Mortazavi, S. (2011). Effect of drying process and wall material on the properties of encapsulated cardamom oil. Food Biophysics 6, 68-76.

Nielsen S. S. (2003). Food Analysis. 3rd. edition. Kluwer-Academic/Plenum Publishers. New York, USA. p. 503-541.

Nurhadi, B., Roos, Y. and Maidannyk, V. (2016). Physical properties of maltodextrin DE 10: water sortion, water plasticization and enthalpy relaxation. Journal of Food Engineering 174, 68-74.

Ocampo-Salinas I.O., T´ellez-Medina D. I., Jim´enez-Mart´ınez C. and D´avila Ortiz G. (2016). Application of high pressure homogenization to improve satability and decrease droplet size in emulsion-flavor systems. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology 1, 646-662.

Ochoa, A.A., Hern´andez-Becerra, J.A., Cavazos-Gardu˜no, A., Vernon-Carter, E.J. and Garc´ıa, H.S. (2016). Preparation and characterization of curcumin nanoemulsions obtained by thin-film hydration emulsification and ultrasonication methods. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 15, 79-90.

Panagiotou, T., Bernard, M.J. and Mesite S.V. (2008). Deagglomeration and dispersion of carbon nanotubes using microfluidizer® high shear fluid processors. NSTI-Nanotechnology 1, 39-42.

Patravale, V.P., Date, A.A. and Kulkarni, R.M. (2004). Nanosuspension: a promising drug delivery strategy. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 56, 827-840.

P´erez, A., Sandoval, A.J., Cova, A. and M¨uller, A.J. (2014). Glass transitions and physical aging of cassava starch-corn oil blends. Carbohydrate Polymers 105, 244-252.

Qian, C. and McClements, D.J. (2011). Formation of nanoemulsions stabilized by model food-grade emulsifiers using high-pressure homogenization: factors aecting particle size. Food Hydrocolloid 25, 1000-1008.

Quintanilla-Carvajal, M.X., Meraz-Torres, L.S., Alamilla-Beltr´an, L., Chanona-P´erez, J.J., Terres-Rojas, E., Hern´and´ez-S´anchez, H., Jim´enez-Aparicio, A.R. and Guti´errez-L´opez, G.F. (2011). Morphmetric characerization of spary-dried microcapsules before and aftertocopherol extraction. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 10, 301-312.

Ranadive, A.S., (1992). Vanillin and related flavor compounds in vanilla extracts made from beans of various global origins. Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry 40, 1922-1924.

Ranadive, A.S. (2011). Quality control of vanilla beans and extracts, In: Handbook of Vanilla Science and Technology. Havkin-Frenkel D., Belanger, F. (Eds.), Blackwell Publishing, Ltd, UK, pp. 141-163.

Rodr´ıguez, S.D., Wilderjans, T.F., Sosa, N. and Bernik, D.L. (2013). Image texture analysis and Gas sensor array studies applied to vanilla encapsulation by octenyl succinic anhydride starches International Food Research 2, 36.

S´anchez, V., Baeza, R., Galmarini, M.V., Zamora, M.C. and Chirife, J. (2013). Freeze-drying encapsulation of red wine polyphenols in an amorphous matrix of maltodextrin. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6, 1350-1354.

Sharma, A., Verma, S.C., Saxena, N., Chadda, N., Singh, N.P. and Sinha, A.K. (2006). Microwave and ultrasound assisted extraction of vanillin and its quantification by high?performance liquid chromatography in Vanilla planifolia. Journal of Separation Science 29, 613-619.

Sikora, M., Schilling, C.H., Tomasik, P. and Li, C. (2002). Dextrin plasticizers for aqueous colloidal processing of alumina. Journal of the European Ceramic society 22, 626-628.

Silva, M., Sobral, P. and Kieckbusch T. (2005). State diagrams of freeze-dried camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (HBK) Mc Vaugh) pulp with and without maltodextrin addition. Journal of Food Engineering 77, 426-422.

Sinha, A.K., Sharma, U.K. and Sharma, N. (2008). A comprehensive review on vanilla flavor: extraction, isolation and quantification of vanillin and others constituents. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 59, 299-326.

Siqueira, G., Bras, J. and Dufresne, A. (2010). Cellulosic Bionanocomposites: A review of preparation, properties and applicatins. Polymers 2, 728-765.

Soottitantawat, A., Bigeard, F., Yoshii, H., Furuta, T., Ohkawara, M. and Linko, P. (2005). Influence of emulsion and powder size on the stability of encapsulated D-limonene by spray drying. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 6, 107-114.

Sostaric, T., Boyce, M.C. and Spickett, E.E. (2000). Analysis of the volatile components in vanilla extracts and flavorings by solidphase microextraction and gas chromatography. Journal of Agricultral and Food Chemistry 48, 5802-5807.

Tapia-Ochoategui, A., Camacho-D´ıaz, B., Perea-Flores, M., Ordonez-Ruiz, I., Guti´errez-L´opez, G., D´avila-Ortiz, G., (2011). Morfometric changes during the traditional curing process of vanilla pods (Vanilla planifolia; Orchidaceae) in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Ingenier´ıa Qu´ımica 10, 105-115.

Udomrati, S., Ikeda, S. and Gohtani, S. (2013). Rheological properties and stability of oil-in-water emulsions containing tapioca maltodextrin in the aqeous phase. Journal of Food Engineering 116, 170-175.

Waliszewski, K.N., Pardio, V.T. and Ovando, S.L. (2007). A simple and rapid HPLC technique for vanillin determination in alcohol extract. Food Chemistry 101, 1059-1062.

Wang, S., Li, C., Copeland, L., Niu, Q. and Wang, S. (2015). Starch retrogradation: A comprehensive review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food and Food Safety 14, 568-585.

Wang, B., Wang, L.-j., Li, D., Wei, Q. and Adhikari, B. (2012). The rheological behavior of native and high-pressure homogenized waxy maize starch pastes. Carbohydrate Polymers 88, 481-489.

Wang, B., Wang, L., Li, D., Zhou, Y. and O¨ zkan, N. (2011). Shear-Thickening properties of waxy maize starch dispersions. Journal of Food Engineering 107, 415-423.

Yang, Y., Marshall-Breton, C., Leser, M.E., Sher, A.A. and McClements, D.J. (2012). Fabrication of ultrafine edible emulsions: comparison of high-energy and low-energy homogenization methods. Food Hydrocolloid 29, 398-406.

Yang, Z., Peng, Z., Li, J., Li, S., Kong, L., Li, P. and Wang, Q. (2014). Development and evaluation of novel flavour microcapsules containing vanilla oil using complex coacervation approach. Food Chemistry 145, 272-277.

Zobel, H.F. (1964). X-ray analysis of starch granules. Page 109 in: Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry. Vol. 4. R. L. Whistler, (ed.). Academic Press: Orlando, FL.
How to Cite
Ocampo-Salinas, I., Jiménez-Aparicio, A., Perea-Flores, M., Tapia-Ochoategui, A., tephen Whitaker, M., Jiménez-Martínez, C., Téllez-Medina, D., & Dávila-Ortíz, G. (2019). High-pressure homogenization and maltodextrins mixtures to miccroencapsulate vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) extract through freeze-drying. Revista Mexicana De Ingeniería Química, 16(1), 193-205. https://doi.org/10.24275/rmiq/Alim759
Food Engineering

Most read articles by the same author(s)