Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química 2022-09-29T02:10:55+00:00 Francisco J Valdes Parada Open Journal Systems <div class="_4wyf">The Mexican Journal of Chemical Engineering &nbsp;(ISSN 1665-2738,&nbsp; issn-e: 2395-8472) publishes original research papers with the aim of promoting a rapid share of relevant research in various disciplines of Chemical Engineering and its interfaces with other enigineering disciplines. A volume is published each year and it consists of three issues, which are published every four months.&nbsp;</div> Chitosan and GRAS substances application in the control of Geotrichum candidum isolated from tomato fruits (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) in the state of Nayarit, Mexico: In vitro tests 2022-08-28T03:16:18+00:00 C.A. Rodríguez-Guzmán B. Montaño-Leyva J.A. Sánchez-Burgos P.U. Bautista-Rosales P. Gutierrez-Martinez <p><em>Geotrichum candidum</em> causal agent of tomato sour rot, has the potential to infect a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. In this work, the <em>in vitro</em> antifungal activity of Chitosan (Chi), Potassium Sorbate (PS), Sodium Bicarbonate (SB), and Sodium Carbonate (SC) and their mixtures were evaluated. The PS and SC treatments showed a 100% inhibition of mycelial growth (MG), germination, and sporulation. Regarding SB, 1.5 and 2.0% concentrations inhibited 87.5 and 88.5% of MG and affected germination and sporulation. Chi at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% inhibited MG by 63.1, 62.4, and 42.1%, respectively, affecting germination and sporulation. The combination of chitosan at 0.5% + PS 0.5% and Chi 0.5% + SC 0.5% demonstrated 99.3 and 71.4%, inhibition of MG, and affected germination and sporulation. Chi 0.5% + SB 1.5% showed no effect on MG, and at 0.5 and 1.0%, the growth rate of the mycelium increased, as well as sporulation and germination. In conclusion, chitosan and salts are an option for the use of synthetic fungicides in the control of pathogenic fungi in postharvest, with low toxicity, and are friendly to the environment.</p> 2022-08-28T03:15:10+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Identification of a Colletotrichum species from mango fruit and its in vitro control by GRAS compounds 2022-09-09T23:19:22+00:00 C.L. Moreno-Hernández M.L. Zambrano-Zaragoza R.M. Velázquez-Estrada J.A. Sánchez-Burgos P. Gutierrez-Martinez <p>The fungus <em>Colletotrichum </em>sp. is the causal agent of anthracnose in mango fruit and leads to substantial postharvest losses (&gt;30 %). Efficient control agents continue to be investigated to reduce the incidence of this pathogen, preferably of a biological-organic nature. The objective of this work was to evaluate the <em>in vitro</em> application of commercial-grade generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds as chitosan, hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and peracetic acid, in the control of <em>Colletotrichum </em>species isolated from mango fruit. The application of commercial chitosan (1.5 % and 2.0 %) confirmed its antifungal effect, with an average inhibition of 34 %, no significant difference was shown with respect to reactive grade chitosan. Hydrogen peroxide, acetic acid, and peracetic acid completely inhibited the development of <em>C. asianum</em> at concentrations &gt; 1.0 %. Each GRAS agent caused morphological damage to the spores, including loss of turgidity, intracellular disorder, effusion of liquid from the cytoplasm, and total loss of integrity. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the damage to the mycelia, with collapsed and dehydrated structures due to exposure to the control agents. Overall, commercial GRAS agents showed an <em>in vitro</em> control effect on the growth of <em>C. asianum</em> at different stages of their development.</p> 2022-09-09T23:19:22+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Additive effect of alternative treatment to chemical control of Botrytis cinerea in blueberries 2022-09-10T16:58:11+00:00 S. Ramos-Bell L.G. Hernández-Montiel R.M. Velázquez-Estrada J.A. Sánchez-Burgos P.U. Bautista-Rosales P. Gutierrez-Martinez <p>The blueberry crop is mainly attacked by the phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea, being very aggressive for this plant, showing resistance to synthetic fungicides. Non-chemical alternatives such as chitosan and salicylic acid have been proposed for its control. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the combination of these compounds for the control of Botrytis cinerea. The in vitro evaluation showed percentages of fungal growth inhibition of 60% and 100% inhibition of sporulation and germination of the phytopathogen. The micrographs showed damage to fungal structures of B. cinerea under the application of the treatments due to the additive effect demonstrated by combining chitosan and salicylic acid. Likewise, there was a great reactivity when combining these compounds, favoring the attack on the phytopathogen and increasing the in vivo effect by reducing the decomposition rate of blueberries by 60% compared to the control.</p> 2022-09-10T16:58:11+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Efficiency parameters that effectively correspond with hydrogen production from VFAs in microbial electrolysis cells 2022-09-11T20:43:25+00:00 B. Cercado V. Ruiz G. Buitrón <p>Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are hybrid systems that include characteristics of bioreactors and electrochemical cells. Primary parameters, such as substrate removal, current density and hydrogen production, and secondary parameters, such as coulombic efficiency, cathodic efficiency and hydrogen yield, determine the performance of MECs. The present work aimed to assess primary and secondary parameters in an MEC fed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) to determine those that most reliably describe the MEC performance in a model setup for hydrogen production. MECs were operated at 0.6 V and fed acetic, propionic and butyric acid mixtures in successive feeding cycles. The main performance parameters were chemical oxygen demand removal COD (84.7 ± 0.5 %), current density (378 ± 7 mA m<sup>-2</sup>) and hydrogen production (267 mL L<sup>-1</sup> d<sup>-1</sup>), which resulted in repeatable and more reliable efficiency parameters when MECs were fed acetate than when they were fed VFA mixtures. Both the current density and hydrogen production curves showed similar inflection points, thus giving accuracy to the cathodic efficiency determination (162.1 % -169.6 %). Hydrogen yield was not a reliable parameter with the three-VFA mixture since hydrogen production and COD removal curves showed no correlation. These findings indicate that MEC assessment should be verified via the correspondence between primary and secondary parameters.</p> 2022-09-11T20:43:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Heat stress on Fomes culture reduces proteases and improves laccases thermostability 2022-09-13T03:15:20+00:00 F.J. Martínez-Valdez G. Carrillo-Sancén O. Loera <p>The aim of this work was to study the production of laccase and protease by <em>Fomes</em> sp. EUM1 under heat stress when a temperature shift from 35 to 45°C was applied. The highest values of laccase activity were similar and obtained after the temperature shift, 76 and 81.6 U/gids at 35 and 45 °C respectively.&nbsp; For protease activity, at 35°C the peak activity (6.4 U/gids) was obtained at day 7 and maintained until the end of the culture and at 45°C the peak activity (4.3 U/gids) was obtained when the temperature shift was realized (day 6) and decreased until the end of the culture. In the zymogram of laccase activity one band with a molecular weight of 45 kDa was observed with extracts from both temperatures evaluated with slight differences in molecular weight and intensity of the bands at the various days assessed. The thermostability of laccase and protease activities from the enzymatic crude extracts, at the highest temperature assessed (60°C) for laccase activity the inactivation constant was 0.324 h<sup>–1</sup> and 0.277 h<sup>–1</sup> from cultures at 35 and 45 °C, respectively.</p> 2022-09-13T03:15:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) in combination with Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) for rapid analysis of the tequila production process 2022-08-28T03:09:19+00:00 P.M. Mondragón-Cortez E.J. Herrera-López E. Arriola-Guevara G.M. Guatemala-Morales <p>The manufacturing process of tequila made of <em>Agave tequilana </em>Weber var. azul consists of several important process stages such as milling, cooking, fermentation, distillation, and aging. The purpose of this contribution was to characterize five of the most important stages of the tequila production process in a pilot plant by using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The results showed that FTIR-ATR spectra of raw juices in the range 4000 and 700 cm<sup>-1</sup>, were mostly composed of absorption peaks associated with water and fructose. The spectra of cooked juices showed the thermal hydrolysis of the fructans to fructose in the interval between 1200 and 800 cm<sup>-1</sup>. The FTIR-ATR spectra of the samples fermented showed a gradual sequence transforming fructose peaks to ethanol peaks during the interval time from 0 to 48 h at 35°C. The spectra obtained from the distillation showed that the intensity of the peaks was a function of the concentration of ethanol in the product distillates. The evolution of the aging of the “<em>tequila blanco</em>” in an oak barrel was monitored for 60 days. The results showed that the region between 1300 and 900 cm<sup>-1</sup> of the FTIR-ATR spectra was associated with the aging process in the oak barrel.</p> 2022-08-28T03:07:48+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Chemical modification of rice (Oryza sativa) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) starches by silanization with trimethoxy(methyl)silane 2022-08-28T15:28:33+00:00 A.M. Salgado-Delgado E. Lozano-Pineda R. Salgado-Delgado J.P. Hernández-Uribe A. Olarte-Paredes M.J. Granados-Baeza <p>Rice starch of the A98 variety, with a denomination of origin of the state of Morelos, and potato starch were silanized to modify hydrophobicity and improve functional properties, providing added value to these starch sources and promoting their use in the formulation of biodegradable materials that require a degree of hydrophobicity, such as packaging materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis determined the presence of trimethoxy(methyl) silane in starch. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the thermal properties and morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy while changes in functional properties were assessed by identifying contact angle, swelling power, water absorption capacity, and oil absorption capacity. Hydrophobic silanized starches were obtained: Potato starch showed a contact angle of 132 ° and rice starch, 130 °. They exhibited changes in density and functionality; both swelling power and water absorption capacity were reduced in potato starch but increased in rice starch.</p> 2022-08-28T15:28:33+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of drying kinetics and drying conditions on biochemical, sensory, and microstructural parameters of “Sefri” pomegranate arils (Punica granatum L. a Moroccan variety). 2022-08-29T17:15:15+00:00 S. El Broudi N. Zehhar N. Abdenouri A. Boussaid A. Hafidi H. Bouamama F. Benkhalti <p>The study evaluated the application of four drying temperatures inside a newly developed hybrid indirect solar dryer in forced convection (at 40, 50, 60, and 70°C) compared to a direct solar dryer (Greenhouse) for the processing of the Moroccan Sefri pomegranate arils. The thermodynamical analysis allows characterizing the physical properties of the arils using some parameters such as optimal water activity, net isosteric heat of sorption, and effective moisture diffusivity. The biochemical analysis studied included total proteins, sugars, vitamin C, and total anthocyanins, hygrometric properties, microstructure modification, and sensory evaluation. Generally, drying led to a reduction in all parameters. However, lower drying temperature processes (indirect convective solar drying at 40°C and 50°C) give the best results for pomegranate arils. Greenhouse dried samples had almost the lower quality in all parameters. The color is more preserved at indirect convective solar drying at 40°C. However, indirect convective solar drying at 50°C was most appreciated by consumers with higher scores on the sensory evaluation test. As the first study of the thermodynamic and biochemical investigation of dried pomegranate arils in Morocco, this work intended to be the first step in developing controlled new high-quality products for the Moroccan market.</p> 2022-08-28T22:44:23+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Structural, physicochemical, and emulsifying properties of pectin obtained by aqueous extraction from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel 2022-08-31T01:56:19+00:00 E. Alpizar-Reyes J. Cruz-Olivares S. Cortés-Camargo M.E. Rodríguez-Huezo J.O. Macías-Mendoza J. Alvarez-Ramirez C. Pérez-Alonso <p>This work aimed to carry out a straightforward aqueous extraction of pectin from red pitaya peels (RPP), in a drive to promote the circular economy of the settlements where the fruit of this endemic species grows. The average pectin yield was 11.59 g/100 g dry basis, the degree of esterification was 60.35±1.35%, the galacturonic acid content was 54.36±1.03%, and the protein content of 5.86 ± 0.25%. The RPP pectin was analyzed in terms of physicochemical, functional, and structural features. The FTIR spectrum confirmed that the unveiled pectin structure was consistent with that reported for commercial pectins from different botanical sources. Pectin aqueous dispersions exhibited power-law shear thinning behaviour. Corn oil (10 mL) in 150 mL aqueous pectin solutions (0.12, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 and 0.90%, w/v) emulsions exhibited increasing emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability with increased pectin concentration. The small It was concluded that the RPP pectin is an alternative potential new source of pectin for use in the formation and stabilization of oil-in-water food emulsions.</p> 2022-08-31T01:38:02+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Swelling, erosion and physicochemical characteristics of plum powder tablets obtained by spray drying 2022-09-12T03:18:30+00:00 P. Guillén-Velázquez D. Cantú-Lozano M.P. Rascón-Díaz M. Jimenez-Fernández G. Luna Solano <p>Mexican plum juice was spray dried to obtain plum powder to develop tablets as a source of vitamin C and pectins. Plum powder presented poor flow characteristics and low capacity to compaction so different binders were probed. Corn starch (CS), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate (SA) were added in 15 and 30 % w/w and tablets were made at 30 and 40 kN of compression load. Water activity (a<sub>w</sub>), moisture content (%X), color, hardness, disintegration time, % water uptake and erosion were evaluated. Tablets presented acceptable values of a<sub>w</sub> (0.364-0.513) and %X (1.14-2.79), color parameters indicated more presence of yellow-red coloration when maximum compression load was applied. Starch formulations presented shortest disintegration times (4.24-6.43 min) and acceptable hardness to be handled and transported without damage (3.441-4.8618 kgf), CMC and alginate formulations took more time to disintegrate in water however were synergic in acidic medium allowing faster dissolution, compared to water, and high erosion (&gt;80%).</p> 2022-09-12T03:18:30+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of the feed composition and the spray drying process on the quality of a powdered mixture of blackberry (Rubus glaucus Benth) 2022-09-29T02:10:55+00:00 M. Cortes-Rodriguez J.H. Gil-González Rodrigo Ortega Toro <p><em>The Castile blackberry (Rubus glaucus </em>Benth<em>) is a fruit rich in active components, which is framed within the context of functional foods, to provide well-being to the human being. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of the feed composition and the spray drying process (SD) on the quality of the blackberry powdered mixture (BPM). The response surface methodology was used with a central composite face-centered design (α=1), considering the following independent variables: inlet air temperature (IAT) (140 - 160 °C), outlet air temperature (OAT) (80 - 90 °C), atomizer disk speed (ADS) (20000 - 24000 rpm) and maltodextrin (MD) (5 – 9 %). The dependent variables were water activity (aw), humidity (X<sub>w</sub>), solubility (S), wettability (<u>W<sub>e</sub></u>), hygroscopicity (H), angle of repose (AR), particle size (Span), total phenols (TP), antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), anthocyanins (A), ellagic acid (EA) and product yield (Y). In general, <u>W<sub>e</sub></u> is the most critical variable in BPM, being statistically affected by most of the independent variables and by their linear and quadratic interactions. On the other hand, the experimental optimization of multiple responses defined the independent variables as IAT (159.3 °C), OAT (89.3 °C), ADS (24000 rpm), MD (5.5 &nbsp;%), and the dependent variables as aw (0.166±0.002), Xw (7.10±0.05 %), S (88.01±0.17 %), <u>W<sub>e</sub></u> (54.4±1.3 min), AR (7.4±3.7°), Span (1.69±1.04), TP (4513.1±23.5 mg AGE/100g dry base (db), ABTS (4012.7±34.0 mg TE/100g db), DPPH (5359.4±39.1 mg TE/100g db), A (281.2±29.4 mg C<sub>3</sub>G/100g db), EA (2653.0±155.0 mg/100g db) and Y (46.4±13.2 %). The spray drying (SD) process provides effective protection for the active compounds of the blackberry extract. In addition, it guarantees physicochemical stability for storage.</em></p> 2022-09-29T02:10:55+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A hydrodynamic model to describe CaCO3 deposit formation in pipelines 2022-09-09T23:13:02+00:00 H. Gómez-Yáñez G.T. Lapidus-Lavine <p>Calcium carbonate deposition inside of pipes is a widespread problem in aqueous fluid transport systems, where calcium and carbonate ions are dissolved. The present study describes the physical and chemical phenomena of mass transport of the chemical species, from the bulk solution to the pipe walls, inside a straight circular pipe. The mass transfer coefficient is estimated using correlations for developing laminar flow. The controlling mechanism is assigned using the Damköhler number and the model simulation results are analyzed for three scenarios: when mass transfer controls the deposition, by mixed control or by the deposition kinetics. If mass transfer is the controlling mechanism, the deposit was concentrated at the pipe entrance, while with kinetic control, it forms further downstream. This study found that most important factor influencing the deposition process is the bulk and superficial pH values.</p> 2022-09-09T23:04:41+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Synthesis of non-ionic, cationic, and anionic surfactant from coconut oil for remediation of diesel contaminated soil 2022-09-02T01:10:09+00:00 E. Vázquez-Vélez J. Monzón-Mendoza H. Martínez B. Campillo <p>Nowadays, there is great concern about environmental pollution caused by human activity. The soil represents an ecosystem affected by oil activities. Surfactant soil washing is commonly used to remediate contaminated total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) soil. However, most commercial surfactants are derived from petroleum; therefore, new surfactants friendly to the environment are researched.</p> <p>This work synthesized types three green surfactants from coconut oil. FTIR, and <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectroscopy indicated the proposed chemical structures. These surfactants were evaluated in the TPH remotion. The results show a more effective removal of hydrocarbons using the cationic surfactant with 99.3 %, followed by the non-ionic surfactant with 97.5 %, and the anionic surfactant, with 93.7 %.</p> <p>Residual diesel in the soil was characterized and quantified using Gas Chromatography-Mass (GC-MS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, complying with the maximum permissible limits of TPH in the soil (NOM-138-SEMARNAT/SSA1-2012). The GC results show the removal of several TPHs; however, some differ based on the type of surfactant used in the wash. Soil characterization by SEM-EDS confirmed that there was no significant particle wear. Furthermore, the cationic surfactant was not adsorbed on the soil after washing.</p> 2022-09-02T01:10:09+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sugar production by dilute acid hydrolysis of oat bagasse with three different acids: kinetics and thermodynamics 2022-09-05T14:42:19+00:00 J.C. Gómora-Hernández M. del C. Carreño-de-León F. Cuellar-Robles N. Flores-Alamo <p>Acid hydrolysis is used as a treatment method to hydrolyse the polysaccharides present in biomass to fermentable sugar. In this research the hydrolysis of oat bagasse was studied employing different inorganic acids (HCl, H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> and H<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub>) at low temperatures (90 – 110 °C) in a long-term process. Sulphuric acid showed a high potential to produce reducing sugars reaching the maximum production yields at 110°C, while hydrochloric acid at 110°C was the most catabolic acid promoting sugars transformation into furfural. FTIR and relative transmittance analyses suggested that major impact on lignin polymer was made by phosphoric acid hydrolysis at Combined Severity Factors (CSF) higher than 1.5. Kinetic constants calculated from conventional Saeman model allowed to determine thermodynamic parameters for each inorganic acid. Decomposition of sugars occurred most frequently when the Activation Energies (Ae) were low than calculated for sugar production, being aldehydes, the most stable products obtained during hydrolysis. Thermodynamic parameters show and endothermic and non-spontaneous oat bagasse hydrolysis reaction for different inorganic acids.</p> 2022-09-05T14:42:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Metabolic and kinetic changes of activated sludge because of failures in the aeration system in a WWTP 2022-09-16T20:38:07+00:00 I.V. Romualdo-Martínez A.I. Hernández-Rodríguez G. González-Blanco R. Beristain-Cardoso <p>The classic question from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) operators is, how long can a secondary reactor be kept unaerated after an aeration system failure? Therefore, in the present research, samples of activated sludge (AS) were taken from a WWTP and left without aeration for 12, 18, 24, and 36 h; simulating an aeration failure. Subsequently, the activity of AS lacking aeration was evaluated in batch cultures. The results showed that the lack of AS oxygenation affected its metabolism. For example, the heterotrophic activity stopped completely when AS was not aerated for 24 h. The nitrifying activity, in the experiments from 12 to 24 h without aeration, the ammonium removal did not change, but there was an increase in nitrite concentration. In the 36-h experiment without aeration, the ammonium consumption rate and removal efficiency decreased by 56% and 43%, respectively, regarding the control. N<sub>2</sub>O was produced in the period when the AS was not aerated, which could be responsible for these metabolic and kinetic changes. Finally, this study suggested don't leave for more than 24 h the activated sludge without aeration for a quick recovery or to diminish the damage.</p> 2022-09-16T20:38:06+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Analytical and hybrid-neuro-differential approaches for describing contaminant removal from aqueous systems 2022-09-17T01:25:19+00:00 D. Temoltzin-Lobatón K.H. Estévez-Sánchez D. Cruz-González C.E. Ochoa-Velasco I.I. Ruiz-López <p>In this study, both analytical and hybrid-neuro-differential formulations were developed for describing the contaminant removal from wastewater by adsorption. The sorption isotherm, expressed as a straight-line equation (single segment or piecewise function) or artificial neural network (ANN), was coupled to the balance equations describing the pollutant transfer in adsorbent and wastewater phases, and their contact interface. The resulting wastewater adsorption remediation model (WARM) is valid for both batch and continuous operations, does not consider a dominant internal or external resistance to mass transfer or instantaneously equilibrated adsorbent, and has an analytical solution when a straight-line isotherm is used. The applicability of current model was tested in the analysis of two experimental datasets from literature describing the removal of the anionic dye direct red 23 (DR23) by graphene oxide (GO) and 4-nitrophenol (4NP) on calcium alginate-multiwall carbon nanotube beads (CAMCNB), where internal and external mass transfer coefficients and sorption isotherm parameters were simultaneously estimated by nonlinear regression. The analytical and hybrid-neuro-differential formulations were further compared with a numerical one where the WARM was coupled to Langmuir isotherm. Besides, the model was also used to explore different scenarios for continuous operation with all tested isotherms. It was demonstrated that the proposed formulations based on straight-line and ANN isotherms achieved a good reproduction of both dynamic and equilibrium experimental data, with similar fitness indices to that obtained with other non-linear equilibrium models.</p> 2022-09-17T01:25:19+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inhibition of the acetoclastic methanogenic activity by disinfectants used in the washing of pharmaceutical industry equipment 2022-09-23T15:43:24+00:00 S.E. Vigueras-Carmona M.M. Montes-García J. Pérez-Vargas <p>The pharmaceutical industry uses different types of disinfectants in the washing processes of different equipment, which become part of the wastewaters generated in the production processes. The nature of these compounds can diminish the biodegradability of the effluents; hence, this is an important issue to consider during the design and operation of treatment processes. This study establishes the kinetic parameters for three commercial disinfectants, using anaerobic sludges as inoculum. The doses for the active principle (quaternary salt) that yield a 50% reduction of the methanogenic inoculum were 1.6X10<sup>-3</sup> kg · m<sup>-3</sup> for benzalkonium, 8.4X10<sup>-3</sup> kg · m<sup>-3</sup> for bactium, and 154X10<sup>-3</sup> kg · m<sup>-3</sup> for anibac. The three disinfectants induced a mixed-type inhibition on the anaerobic biodegradability of sodium acetate, the main precursor of methanogenesis during anaerobic digestion.</p> 2022-09-23T15:43:24+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##