Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química <div class="_4wyf">The Mexican Journal of Chemical Engineering &nbsp;(ISSN 1665-2738,&nbsp; issn-e: 2395-8472) publishes original research papers with the aim of promoting a rapid share of relevant research in various disciplines of Chemical Engineering and its interfaces with other enigineering disciplines. A volume is published each year and it consists of three issues, which are published every four months.&nbsp;</div> en-US <p>By publishing your paper in our journal you are also granting it the copyright of the information that it contains.</p> (Francisco J Valdes Parada) (Francisco J. Valdés-Parada) Sun, 06 Jun 2021 06:13:45 +0000 OJS 60 α-L-Fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima: hydrolytic and transfucosylation activities <p><em>Fucosylated oligosaccharides play several biologically relevant roles. They are naturally present in human milk which offers to infants short- and long-term health benefits. These compounds can be obtained also by enzymatic synthesis. In this work, the effects of pH and temperature on hydrolytic and transfucosylation activities of α-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima were evaluated. The optimal pH for the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis was found in a range from 6 to 8 while the highest conversions for transfucosylation reactions were observed within the range of 7-10. The best temperature for both enzymatic activities was 95 °C. Fucosylated oligosaccharides were synthesized with the highest productivity of 3.54 mM/h at pH 8 and 95 °C. Overall, optimization of the conditions of transfucosylation reaction catalyzed by the α-L-fucosidase from Thermotoga maritima allowed for higher yields of fucosylated oligosaccharides as well as shorter reaction time and a lower concentration of the employed enzyme.</em></p> M.A. Robles-Arias, F. Guzmán-Rodríguez, M. García-Garibay, S. Alatorre-Santamaría, L. Gómez-Ruiz, G. Rodríguez-Serrano, A.E. Cruz-Guerrero ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 07 Jun 2021 15:38:49 +0000 Enzymatic extraction of limonene, limonin and other relevant compounds from Citrus sinensis (orange) and Citrus aurantiifolia (lime) by-products <p>The byproducts from orange (<em>Citrus</em><em> sinensis</em>) and lime (<em>Citrus</em><em> aurantiifolia</em>) constitute nearly 50 wt. % of the fresh fruit and, unfortunately, these are discarded. These residues could be utilized to obtain extractable compounds of high added value, such as limonene and limonin.</p> <p>The extraction of limonene from peels and limonin from seeds, from both orange and lime, was evaluated with a commercial enzyme (Macerex). It was found that the yield of limonene was 17-fold higher (4.0 and 4.7 mg/g-peel from orange and lime respectively) using the enzymatic treatment as compared to blank. More bioactive compounds and in a higher concentration were obtained from peels using the enzymatic treatment as compared to blank.</p> <p>Limonin yield was twofold when the enzymes were applied to orange and lime seeds, as compared to blank (2.5 mg/g-orange seeds and 3.0 mg/g-lime seeds). The amounts of extracted limonene and limonin had a correlation with the amount of sugars released during degradation of the vegetal tissue.</p> <p>Enzymatic extraction of bioactive compounds from citrus by-products exhibits high yields, similar to traditional extraction treatment such as hydrodistillation, but under milder conditions.</p> J.R. Ramos-Ibarra, E. Arriola-Guevara, G. Toriz, G.M. Guatemala-Morales, R.I. Corona-Gonzalez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 09 Jun 2021 22:53:22 +0000 The importance of carbon and nitrogen sources on exopolysaccharide synthesis by lactic acid bacteria and their industrial importance <p>Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are classified in two groups, homopolysaccharides (HoPs) and heteropolysaccharides (HePs), are produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and used in a range of industrial applications including the medical and food industries. HoPs are extracellular EPSs and their production depends on extracellular enzymes, while HePs are intracellular EPSs. Their nature (extra or intracellular) directly impacts production rates, HoPs having higher yields. The development of processes for producing EPSs has attracted great interest, since novel application trends have emerged due to the great diversity of recent information generated on EPSs properties. HoPs have been synthesized by fermentation using bacterial cells and a cell-free enzymatic process, while HePs have been produced only by fermentation. The analysis of the EPSs production processes indicates that macronutrients such as the carbon and nitrogen source used in the culture media are very important for the synthesis of EPSs and the enzymes involved, understanding their importance can assist to design processes for production of EPSs with desirable characteristics and yields according to the needs of the processes and products to which they are applicable. This review emphasized in the analyses of carbon and nitrogen sources used for EPSs production and their functional applications and productive aspects.</p> F. Hernandez-Rosas, J.D. Castilla-Marroquín, J.M. Loeza-Corte, M.A. Lizardi-Jimenez, R. Hernández Martínez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 01 Jul 2021 22:00:14 +0000 Expression of a synthetic protein with a high proportion of essential amino acids by Pichia pastoris <p><em>It is widely known that an adequate intake of proteins with essential amino acids stimulates the production of essential nonprotein substances for the body, such as serotonin, thyroid hormones, and glutathione. Biotechnology applications can focus on food and its benefits for human health, either by improving the nutritional value of existing foods or developing new alternatives that can help resolve the effects of poor nutrition. The yeast Pichia pastoris has been designated as a GRAS (generally recognized as safe) microorganism and is currently used to produce a large number of recombinant proteins. In this study, a 100% synthetic protein was expressed intracellularly as a protein with high nutritional quality that contains a 75% ratio of essential amino acids using the expression system of the yeast P. pastoris. This approach might offer future possibilities for using the modified yeast as a single-cell protein source in the livestock industry and the food supplement market to reduce total protein intake</em>.</p> Y. Bartolo-Aguilar, C. Chávez-Cabrera, J.C. Cancino-Díaz, R. Marsch ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 05 Jul 2021 05:02:15 +0000 Real-time monitoring of xylitol production in a bioreactor by Candida tropicalis IEC5-ITV using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) <p>The use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Chemometrics in-situ or in-line monitoring of xylitol fermentation process by <em>Candida tropicalis </em>IEC5-ITV was investigated in a bioreactor and in a complex analytical matrix. Xylose, xylitol, biomass and glycerol determinations were performed by a transflection fiber optic probe, immersed in the culture broth and connected to a Near-Infrared (NIR) process analyzer. The NIR spectra recorded between 800 and 2,200 nm, these NIR Spectra were pretreated using Savitzky-Golay smoothing and second derivative in order to perform a partial least squares regression (PLSR) and generate the calibration models. These calibration models were tested by external validation and then used to predict concentrations of xylitol fermentations in batch culture. The standard errors of calibration (SEC) and determination coefficients (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em>) for xylose, xylitol, biomass and glycerol were 0.234 (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.991), 0.220 (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.999), 0.234 (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.991) and 0.015 (<em>R<sup>2</sup></em> = 0.999) g/L and standard errors of prediction (SEP) were 1.771, 0.192, 0.011, 0.503 g/L, respectively. Calibration and validation criteria were defined and evaluated in order to generate robust and reliable models of a xylitol fermentation process. For validation models, SEV and SEP were <u>&lt;</u> 10 % of initial concentration of xylose and <em>R<sup>2</sup></em><u> &gt;</u> 0.96 were obtained.&nbsp; These results indicate that in situ NIRS probe is suitable for real-time monitoring of xylitol production.</p> A. A. Ortega-Platas, V. Corro-Herrera, M.G. Aguilar-Uscanga, J. Gómez-Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 07 Jul 2021 17:37:42 +0000 Comparative analysis of microbial diversity in batch reactor with direct interspecies electron transfer system using an effective and inexpensive method mgDNA extraction <p>Recently, metagenomic DNA based analysis gained importance in fields such as environmental sciences and bioenergy, where mixed microbial communities embedded in complex matrixes, play a crucial role. Therefore, financially economical, and high quality metagenomic DNA extraction protocols are needed. In this work, a rapid and inexpensive method for high quality DNA extraction from a variety of complex samples was performed; the average DNA yield was 71.65 ng µL<sup>−1</sup>, with an average purity of 1.68 (A<sub>260</sub>/A<sub>280</sub>). The cost of extraction per sample was about 76 % less in comparison with commercial kits and the time needed to obtain the DNA pellets was about 4 hours. The DNA was suitable for 16S rRNA gene amplification by PCR and for next generation sequencing analysis, employing a MiSeq Ilumina platform. A high microbial diversity was detected in this study, and three main groups of bacteria were observed, which were developed according to the effect of the activated carbon had on them. The analysis performed showed a great difference between the samples, highlighting the differences between the microbial communities developed in the activated carbon biofilm and the bacteria detected in the reactor without activated carbon.</p> L. Alzate-Gaviria, D. Valero, E. España-Gamboa, M. González-Muñoz, A. Cortés-Velázquez, J. Dominguez-Maldonado, D. Pérez-Brito, R. Tapia-Tussell ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 26 Jul 2021 17:56:39 +0000 Exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria improves survival and proteolytic profile of Lactobacillus rhamnosus gg added to semi-ripened cheese <p>Currently, the interest of the food industry on the use of probiotics in order to provide beneficial effects is increasing. However, one limitation is getting microorganisms to survive in food matrices. In this work, protective effect of exopolysaccharide produced by <em>Lactobacillus delbrueckii</em> subsp. <em>bulgaricus </em>NCFB 2772 on <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</em> GG survival during semi-ripening of cheese, was analyzed. Ripening was carried out at 14 ° C for 28 days in a controlled RH chamber. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to determine interactions of probiotic with the exopolysaccharide. During ripening process, the proteolytic activity was determined through TNBS, SDS-PAGE and size exclusion-HPLC techniques. Viability of probiotic was measured by plate count. Cheese inoculated with both strains showed an improvement in probiotic survival. Exopolysaccharide was shown to have an effect on protein aggregation and cheese structural uniformity. Micrographs revealed a direct interaction between probiotic and exopolysaccharide. Proteolytic capacity did not decrease, and the generation and decrease of low molecular weight peptides (less than 3 kDa) was verified throughout the ripening process. Thus, using an exopolysaccharide-producing strain during cheese ripening has a positive effect on probiotic survival when they are used as starter cultures.</p> E. Contreras-López, J. Jaimez-Ordaz, G.M. Rodríguez-Serrano, A.E. Cruz-Guerrero, J. Ramírez-Godínez, A. Castañeda-Ovando, L.G. González-Olivares ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 28 Jul 2021 02:35:20 +0000 Specific optical-based biosensor to rapid detection of Salmonella Typhimurium using FTIR: evaluation in natural orange juice, as an application in food products. <p><em>Salmonella</em> is one of the main pathogenic microorganisms present in foods, where natural orange juice is an example, although there are techniques that determine this bacterium, it is necessary to develop a device that allows <em>Salmonella</em> detection quickly, easily, and in real time. Therefore, using biosensors is an excellent option to solve this need. In this work, an optical biosensor of amorphous silicon thin films, a non-studied material in this area, was applied for the detection of <em>Salmonella </em>Typhimurium in natural orange juice, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The characteristic detection infrared band was identified at 1030 cm<sup>-1</sup>, related to the functional groups presence of the cell membrane and DNA bacterial, <em>Salmonella</em> concentrations in a range from 100 to 1000 CFU/mL were detected, and a SEM analysis was carried out. Biosensor did not show cross reactivity with enteropathogenic <em>Escherichia coli</em>.</p> F.J. Gómez-Montaño, M.C.G. Avelino-Flores, F. Avelino-Flores, C. Reyes-Betanzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 13 Sep 2021 20:40:51 +0000 Influence of the cellulose and sulfate ratio on voltage generation in Winogradsky columns <p>It is possible to measure the voltage generation in Winogradsky columns by adding an electrical circuit with an anode (buried in sediment) and a cathode (submerged in water). The effect of cellulose/sulfate ratio on voltage generation in sediment columns has not been systematically investigated. Therefore, the aim of this work is the optimization by factorial design the cellulose/sulfate ratio to improve voltage generation in Winogradsky columns. Voltage was generated under different cellulose/sulfate ratios, from 0.08 to 2.57. The voltage in each Winogradsky columns was recorded for 45 days. The response surface model identified an optimal cellulose/sulfate ratio of 0.75 that produced voltage between 300 to 400 mV for several days. These devices represents an alternative for renewable energy generation and cellulose waste could be used as a carbon source.</p> C.L. Fernández-Rendón, G. Barrera-Escorcia, H. Romero-Paredes, I. González ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 19 Sep 2021 19:02:38 +0000 Fungal isolates of genus Trichoderma induce wilt resistance to pea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi through competitive inhibition <p>Four different <em>Trichoderma </em>species were isolated from the soil rhizosphere of pea field from selected areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Based on morphological and cultural characteristics species were recognized as <em>T. harzianum, T, viridae, T. hamatum </em>and<em> T. koningii. </em>The isolated species were screened for the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. The strains were found positive for chitinase and glucanase activities.&nbsp; <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> f. sp<em>. pisi</em> was isolated from roots of wilted pea plants. <em>In-vitro</em> biocontrol potential of the isolated <em>Trichoderma</em> species was assayed by dual culture technique against <em>Fusarium oxysporum </em>f. sp<em> pisi</em>. The maximum growth inhibition was observed by <em>T. viridae</em> (76.42%) followed by <em>T. harzianum</em> (74.29%), <em>T. koningii</em> (71.43%) and <em>T. hamatum</em> (69.64%), after 7 days of incubation. All four isolated species of <em>Trichoderma</em> were used in confrontational assay against <em>Fusarium oxysporum</em> <em>pisi</em> (FOP). A competition of <em>Trichoderma</em> sp. v/s FOP was evident, all <em>Trichoderma </em>strains showed strong antagonistic activity that was clearly observed on dual culture agar plates and further confirmed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pot experiments also confirmed a very strong competitive inhibition of FOP evidently due to presence of glucanase and chitinases in <em>Trichoderma</em> spp. The primary screening and basic findings of present work will be helpful to obtain an efficient and novel biocontrol agent for further experimental trials on pea plants and may also enhance the chance of using <em>Trichoderma </em>species in integrated disease management (IDM) programs as an effective biological agent against several phyto-pathogens.</p> S. Nawaz, M.N. Subhani, M.B. Chattha, Y. Saleem, S.H. Abidi, K. Shahzad, S. Saeed, Q. Syed, M. Irfan, A. Ambreen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 Oct 2021 15:53:48 +0000 Microbial electrochemical system for obtaining value-added products using a halotolerant bioanode <p>Microbial electrochemical systems (MES) cathodic reaction have stood out in the last decade, due to their versatility for the production of several chemical products of commercial interest using renewable energy. This work addresses the use of halotolerant microorganisms as bio-anodes with saline electrolytes (50 gL<sup>-1</sup> NaCl), with a lower resistance and energy loss compared to freshwater systems. Likewise, it was demonstrated that it is possible to recover lanthanide in the form of oxides from a highly saline electrolyte. Being the first work in the literature to report the recovery of this metal from an aqueous solution in MES, opening a door for the development of MES specialized in the recovery of rare earth elements.</p> E. González, B. Escobar-Morales, R. Tapia-Tussell, L. Alzate-Gaviria ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Oct 2021 05:50:39 +0000 Effects of different nitrogen sources on methane production, free ammonium and hydrogen sulfide in anaerobic digestion of cheese whey with cow manure <p>In this present study, the effect of different nitrogen sources in the anaerobic digestion of cheese whey on methane production, free ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide. The results showed that supplementation with urea at a concentration of 1000 mg L<sup>-1</sup> the maximum methane production values of 513.95 ± 2.12 mL CH<sub>4</sub> g VS<sup>-1</sup> were obtained. On the other hand, supplementation with ammonium nitrate at a concentration of 1000 mg L<sup>-1</sup> gave a value of methane of 415.93 ± 5.44 mL CH<sub>4 </sub>g VS<sup>-1</sup> and exhibited the lowest values hydrogen sulfide of 267.69 ± 0.37 ppm and free ammonium of 49.18 ± 9.66 mg L<sup>-1</sup>. Supplementation with ammonium sulfate at a concentration of 2000 mg L<sup>-1</sup>, methane values of 466.64 ± 9.93 mL CH<sub>4</sub> g VS<sup>-1</sup> and hydrogen sulfide of 2768.43 ± 20.52 ppm were obtained. The findings from this research contributed to elucidate the role of supplementation with urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate in the anaerobic digestion process, which could help to solve some problems related to the reduction of methane production in cheese whey fed biodigesters.</p> S. Cisneros de la Cueva, N. Balagurusamy, S.B. Pérez-Vega, I. Pérez-Reyes, J.A. Vázquez-Castillo, F.J. Zavala Díaz de la Serna, I. Salmerón-Ochoa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Oct 2021 06:56:54 +0000 Improvement of the physicochemical properties of composite materials based on cassava starch and polycaprolactone reinforced with sodium montmorillonite <p>The present work aims to study the incorporation effect of montmorillonite and polycaprolactone clays to a matrix of thermoplastic cassava starch plasticized with glycerol, the blends were obtained by extrusion process and the films by compression molding. The physicochemical, mechanical, optical and barrier properties were characterized. The addition of polycaprolactone and montmorillonite reduced the water solubility of the films and improved and the water vapor transmission rate. The oxygen transmission rate of the formulations is lower than that of some conventional polymers and comparable with Ethylene-Vinyl-Alcohol (EVOH). The addition of montmorillonite produced more rigid and less deformable films, with low gloss and low internal transmittance at 650 nm. The materials obtained are friendly to the environment and have functional properties suitable for packaging foods with low humidity, such as bakery products or flours.</p> N. Piñeros-Guerrero, R. Marsiglia-Fuentes, R. Ortega-Toro ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 07 Jun 2021 18:56:44 +0000 Physical, phytochemical and sensory characteristics of extruded high-fiber breakfast cereals prepared by combining carrot by-products with wheat and oat bran <p>High-fiber breakfast cereals are mainly produced by extrusion, and to improve its nutritional/nutraceutical properties, the addition of raw materials rich in bioactive compounds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical, phytochemical and sensory characteristics of extruded high-fiber breakfast cereals (HFB) prepared from carrot by-products and bran as affected by feed moisture (FM, 19.34–30.66%) and carrot pomace content (CPC, 5.51–22.49%), under a central composite rotatable experimental design. When FM was increased, flexural modulus (FMO, 54-89 MPa), soluble dietary fiber (SDF, 0.64-4.18%), bound phenolic compounds (BPC, 0.02-0.25 mg GAE/g), and DPPH antioxidant activity from BPC extracts (2.07-2.29 µmol TE/g) increased, whereas expansion index (1.09-0.89) diminished. Also, when CPC was elevated, FMO (54-83 MPa), water solubility index (14.21-18.84%), color b* (26.8-28.8), insoluble dietary fiber (19.43-24.71%), SDF (1.12-3.98%), free phenolic (0.56-0.71 mg GAE/g), and flavonoids compounds (0.05-0.31 mg QE/g) increased, whereas BPC decreased (0.25-0.14 mg GAE/g). The HFB presented good (≥ 69%) sensory acceptability. These extruded products presented appropriate physical, phytochemical, and sensory characteristics, whose consumption has potential nutraceutical benefits.</p> C.I. Delgado-Nieblas, J.A. Ahumada-Aguilar, S. Agramón-Velázquez, J.J. Zazueta-Morales, N. Jacobo-Valenzuela, X.A. Ruiz-Armenta, A. Carrillo-López, A. Quintero-Ramos, C. Barraza-Elenes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 07 Jun 2021 19:09:22 +0000 Design of a hybrid solar collector with a flat plate solar collector and induction heating: evaluation and modelling with principal components regression <p><em>Food drying is one of the main food preservation processes, which are supplied with electrical energy (EE). Recently, the EE has had constant increases in its costs, prompting the integration of renewable energy sources for these processes. Therefore, the objective of this research was to design, build and model a hybrid solar collector (HSC-IH) for drying food, made up of solar energy (SE) through a solar collector and EE by means of induction heating. (IH), this work prioritizes the incorporation of an auxiliary heating system for the solar collectors, minimizing temperature variability and increasing its heat capacity, the HSC-IH has a collection surface of 1 m<sup>2</sup>, adjustable flow of 0.3 - 4 CMM and maxim of 80 ° C, the prediction model developed with PCR, to determine the outlet temperature (OT) provided by the HSC-IH with only the use of solar energy and to estimate the energy provided by the EE with the IH, the final model it has an R<sup>2</sup> of 0.934 and can be used to understand the OT of HSC-IH.</em></p> E. Figueroa-Garcia, M.A. Segura-Castruita, F.M. Luna-Olea, O.F. Vázquez-Vuelvas, A.M. Chávez-Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 08 Jul 2021 05:30:06 +0000 Effect of adding pineapple (Ananas comosus) flour on the sensory and textural properties of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum) cookies <p><em>Cookies from wheat flour are one of the most consumed bakery products. As they are deficient in fiber, usually other ingredients are added to improve the organoleptic and nutritional attributes. In this work, three formulations were followed to prepare wheat flour (WF) cookies with pineapple flour (PF) at 5, 10, and 15% of substitution. The acceptance level of the cookies was analyzed by three consumer groups: children, teenagers, and adults. The physicochemical properties and shelf-life were also evaluated. Cookies containing 15 % of PF reached a 16 mg GAE/100 g of total polyphenols. The content of antioxidants remained at acceptable levels after baking. The proximal analysis showed that the ash, fiber, and protein contents in all treatments were significantly higher (p≤0.05) than that of commercial samples. Cookies with 5% PF had the highest level of acceptance in the three consumer groups evaluated. The cookies maintained the sensory characteristics after four weeks of storage. The organoleptic and nutritional properties of the cookies were improved after adding pineapple flour. Replacing what flour by 5-15% pineapple flour allowed obtaining cookies with an adequate content of protein, fiber, and total polyphenols.</em></p> M. López-Fernández, G. Méndez-Montealvo, G. Velazquez, A. Perales-Torres, R. Santiago-Adame, O. Castillo-Ruiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 28 Jul 2021 20:52:04 +0000 Design of lattice simplex mixtures as a statistical tool for the inclusion of cowpea bean flour (Vigna unguiculata) in a cheese stick formulation <p>The cowpea bean, recognized as Cowpea (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em> L. Walp.), is an important crop in low-income populations due to its nutritional properties. A mixture analysis was used to obtain the formulation of dough for frozen products, type cheese sticks, including cowpea bean flour (<em>Vigna unguiculata</em>). The frozen sensory evaluation was carried out using an acceptance test with a 7-point hedonic scale with 91 untrained panelists of both sexes of variable age between 17 and 62 years. Of the treatments studied, the evaluating panel showed the greatest preference, for which the largest fraction of cowpea flour constituted it. The addition of cowpea flour in a higher proportion has a significant effect on the product's nutritional and sensory properties. Cowpea flour is indicated to partially replace wheat flour in frozen cheese sticks because it improves its flavor, color, texture, and overall impression, providing a more nutritious product made with native raw materials.</p> J.C. Mendoza-Combatt, L. Fuentes-Medina, M. Mendoza-Combatt ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 14 Aug 2021 06:51:18 +0000 Physicochemical characteristics and survivability of Lactobacillus paracasei encapsulated by a gum arabic-pectin mixture as wall material and added to fresh panela cheese <p>The aim of this research was to obtain and characterize microcapsules of <em>Lactobacillus paracasei</em> LBC81 LYO 10D (Lp-LBC) obtained by spray-drying using gum arabic-pectin mixture as wall material, evaluating their protective capacity and impact on sensory profile and acceptance of panela cheese used as food matrix. Microcapsules obtained at 170 °C showed the highest viability and adequate physicochemical and flow properties. Microencapsulated Lp-LBC showed higher viability during passage through the simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions compared to free cells. Also, microencapsulated bacterial cells showed greater viability than free cells in a fresh panela cheese, however some physicochemical properties changed during storage. The microcapsules showed a range size distribution from 5 to 150 µm which causing adverse changes in the sensorial properties of panela cheese. This study provides evidence of the protective capacity of a gum arabic-pectin mixture on the viability of Lp-LBC during spray-drying and through simulated gastrointestinal conditions, however, the particle size affects the physicochemical and sensory properties of the food in which said capsules were added.</p> M. Jimenez-Fernandez, D.A. Perez-Tirado, A. Peredo-Lovillo, G. Luna-Solano ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Oct 2021 18:53:57 +0000 Decreasing the value of the cell potential using nPt/C|Ti and RuO2|Ti as cathodes in a reactor for electro leaching of electronic e-waste <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">This work has to purpose decrease the value of the cell potential (E</span></em><sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">cell</span></em></sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">) of an electrochemical reactor with a separate compartment with an anionic membrane designed for electro-leaching electronic waste (E-waste). In the anodic compartment using a titanium plate in HNO</span></em><sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">3</span></em></sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> as an anolyte, while the electro-leaching of the metals and the evaluation of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was studied. Three different cathodes (Platinum; Pt, titanium coated with ruthenium oxide; RuO</span></em><sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span></em></sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">|Ti and titanium coated with platinum nanoparticles; nPt/C|Ti) were used for the catalysis of the evolution reaction of hydrogen (HER) in a solution of H</span></em><sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span></em></sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">SO</span></em><sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">4</span></em></sub><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">. The results obtained by voltammetry indicate that the electrodes modified with RuO</span></em><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">2</span></em><em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> and nPt/C, promote a greater cathodic current for the HER, decreasing the cell potential and increase the current density of the induced metallic electro-leaching. This implies the decrease of the electrical power that the reactor requires during its operation. Obtaining Space-time yield (STY) values of 123.4 and 64 mol·L</span></em><sup><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">-1</span></em></sup><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">·h</span></em><sup><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">-1</span></em></sup><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">·cm</span></em><sup><em><span style="font-weight: 400;">-2</span></em></sup><em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> for the carbon and platinum nanoparticle and the ruthenium oxide catalysts respectively.</span></em></p> J.C. Ramírez-Castellanos, M. Luna-Trujillo, V.E. Reyes-Cruz, A. Manzo-Robledo, G. Urbano-Reyes, M.A. Veloz-Rodríguez, J.C. Juarez-Tapia, J.A. Cobos-Murcia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 09 Jun 2021 22:27:17 +0000 Municipal wastewater treatment by photocatalysis <p>To reverse the negative impacts on water resources caused by industries, the advanced oxidation processes (AOP) have been developed as a novel alternative for the treatment of effluents. Among the most used processes is photocatalysis consisting of the acceleration of a photoreaction using a catalyst.</p> <p>This work evaluates the photodegradation of organic, inorganic oxidizable compounds and the inactivation of microorganisms in municipal wastewater, from the effluent of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). The efficiency of two light sources, a UV lamp and solar radiation, and two catalysts synthesized through the sol-gel method, TiO<sub>2</sub> with a crystallite size of 20 nm and ZnO/TiO<sub>2</sub> with a crystallite size of 8 nm, were compared. The results obtained showed that photocatalytic treatments reduced TSS levels by 91%, COD by 69%, and BOD<sub>5</sub> by 73%, in the best of cases. Besides, 10 of the 11 organic compounds present were degraded, most of which are of hospital origin. It was also possible to inactivate some microorganisms such as Enterobacter, pseudomonas, and Klebsiella, in the order of 3.6x10<sup>8</sup> CFU to 1.63x10<sup>4</sup> CFU in the best of results.</p> <p>It was found that both photocatalytic processes represent a viable option for polishing the treatment of wastewater discharges from conventional WWTPs. However, the ZnO/TiO<sub>2</sub> catalyst with solar radiation showed the best result.</p> Berenice Ángel-Hernández, Fernando Hernández-Aldana, Gabriela Pérez Osorio, J.E Moisés Gutiérrez-Arias ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 08 Aug 2021 05:15:13 +0000 Modeling glucose isomerization in a packed bed reactor using a new approach to the Briggs-Haldane mechanism <p>Nowadays, immobilized enzymes are utilized in several food industry applications. Some researches use apparent kinetic parameters in immobilized enzyme reactor systems, which are limited to such case studies. To enhance productivity in a packed bed reactor (PBR), a clear description of all the mechanisms (kinetic, intra-particle diffusive mass transport, fluid-particle convective mass transport, and axial dispersion) affecting the process should be established. The objective of this study was to model the isomerization of glucose in a PBR with calcium alginate beads (CAB), using an approach where the kinetic and diffusional mechanisms are described independently. The convective mass transfer (<em>k<sub>L</sub></em>) and axial dispersion (<em>D<sub>z</sub></em>) coefficients were calculated from correlations. Validation was performed comparing predictions against experimental data (<em>R</em><sup>2 </sup>= 0.907) of glucose conversion at the reactor’s outlet once steady state was reached. Under the study conditions, in contrast to the effect exerted by diffusive mass transport on fructose specific productivity, the effect of axial dispersion and convective mass transport is negligible. Analyzing different operation parameters via simulation, the particle size had the highest impact on the glucose bioconversion. By reducing the CAB size, the surface area is increased and thus the conversion. It is recommended to test new immobilizing agents or decreasing the CAB size, monitoring that immobilizing support preserves its stability and functionality.</p> M. Carrazco-Escalante, O. Hernández-Calderón, R. Iribe-Salazar, Y. Vázquez-López, E. Ríos-Iribe, C. Alarid-García, J. Caro-Corrales ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 16 Aug 2021 04:05:58 +0000 Voltage production and simultaneous municipal wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells performed with Clostridium strains <p><em>Clostridium</em> strains are known due to their capability to produce hydrogen and free electrons during their metabolism; however, voltage production and electric current generation by Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) have not been deeply explored yet employing these microorganisms. In this paper we evaluated both voltage generation and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction in municipal wastewater by one chamber MFC performed with graphite cloth electrodes and inoculated with <em>Clostridium bifermentans</em>, <em>Clostridium sordellii</em> and native bacteria. <em>Clostridium</em> strains grew properly on both Ravot medium and municipal wastewater reaching the maximum develops at 96 and 120 hours for <em>bifermentans</em> and <em>sordellii</em> respectively. Microbial growth kinetics determined by Gompertz modified model showed low lag times for all tests. <em>Clostridium sordellii</em> showed not only the maximum voltages but also the highest potential to remove organic matter from wastewater since COD diminished around 60% at the end of MFC’s operation. The addition of phosphate salts solution increased the removal of organic matter but was not efficient to generate voltage, moreover, the microorganisms present in wastewater were able to produce voltage but&nbsp; the amount of organic matter removed by them were low. The maximum generated voltage, Power Density (PD), Volumetric Power Density (VPD) and Current Density (CD) values were observed in MFC inoculated with <em>Clostridium sordelli</em> and performed with wastewater with no buffer solution, they were; 0.372 V, 153.43 mW m<sup>-2</sup>, 1.73 W m<sup>-3</sup> and 0.413 A m<sup>-2</sup> respectively. <em>Clostridium</em> strains showed a high potential to reduce COD in wastewater generating green energy as by-product.</p> J. Dorazco-Delgado, J.H. Serment-Guerrero, S.M. Fernández-Valverde, M.C. Carreño-de-León, J.C. Gómora Hernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:42:59 +0000 Modification of wettability and reduction of interfacial tension mechanisms involved in the release and enhanced biodegradation of heavy oil by a biosurfactant <p>Bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils requires releasing the oil from the porous matrix to render it bioavailable. This work aims at evaluating a biosurfactant produced by a <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> strain to improve the release and biodegradation of heavy crude oil contaminating limestone sand. The biosurfactant effect on biodegradation of crude oil was elucidated, using a <em>Rhodococcus </em><em>sp</em>. strain. The CO<sub>2</sub> production rate was used as indicator of biological activity that improved by 32.84%. Moreover, at least 67% of the &gt;C<sub>20 </sub>fraction was degraded in the systems with biosurfactant, reducing aromatic and resin fractions (12.5% and 2%, respectively), whereas without biosurfactant only 37% of the &gt; C<sub>20</sub> fraction was removed compared with the null reduction in aromatics and resin. The decrease in surface and interfacial tension, as well as the modification to wettability caused by biosurfactant activity, were the main mechanisms promoting the release of heavy oil, thus making it bioavailable</p> E. Castillo-Campos, V. Mugica-Álvarez, T. Roldán-Carillo, P. Olguín-Lora, G. Castorena-Cortés ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 04 Jul 2021 07:21:18 +0000 Synthesis of adsorbents from wheat hulls, extracted cellulose and modified with Cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride to remove Congo Red in aqueous solution <p>Adsorbents from the wheat husk (WH), wheat husk cellulose (WHC) and the cellulose modified with Cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (MWHC), in the removal of Congo Red were evaluated. Experiments were carried out in batch at different concentrations (40, 70 and 100 mg/L) and adsorbent doses (15, 25 and 35 mg), following a multifactorial 3<sup>3</sup> design of experiments. It was found the adsorption efficiency of Congo red increased with initial concentration and decrease in adsorbent dosage using all adsorbents. WHC and MWHC showed a rapid adsorption rate in the initial minutes of the process, reaching equilibrium at 480 and 120, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium on WHC and MWHC was described by the Freundlich model; showing this affinity: MWHC&gt;WHC&gt;WH. It was concluded wheat residues are a good precursor for the preparation of efficient adsorbents to remove Congo Red. CTAC functions as an adsorbent modifying agent for use in the removal of anionic contaminants. These results have a potential application in the treatment of wastewater from industries such as food and textiles.</p> Angel Villabona-Ortiz, Candelaria Tejada-Tovar, Rodrigo Ortega Toro, Fabián Aguilar-Bermúdez, Yeraldine Pájaro-Moreno ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 25 Jul 2021 18:26:56 +0000 Treatment of waste activated sludge by steam explosion and alkaline acidogenesis <p>A process improvement of the anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) is needed to produce energy and chemicals to compensate the costs of the full wastewater treatment process. Alkaline steam explosion (A-SE) @160°C and 0.67 MPa absolute pressure, followed by thermophilic alkaline acidogenesis (50°C, pH 9) improves the WAS digestibility and the methane yields by breaking the cell walls and the extracellular polymers. This work studies the treatment time and alkalinity effects on the number of destroyed solids measured as cell damage and particle size reduction. To monitor the process a flow cytometer (FCM), through light scattering signals, proved to be an alternative to the measurement of total suspended solids by gravimetry.</p> <p>The effect of alkaline acidogenesis on the volatile fatty acids (VFA) yield is studied with the A-SE suspension which is cooled down to 50°C and fed to a continuous acidogenic reactor at pH 9 under several organic loads to find the optimum (6 g COD<sub>VSS</sub>/L<sup>.</sup>d) with the highest soluble COD and VFA production rates (1.4 and 0.8 g COD/L,d respectively). This effluent can be fed to a methanogenic reactor to produce 0.5 L<sub>CH4</sub>/L<sup>.</sup>d or the VFA can be separated for the chemical industry.</p> R. Tafolla, F. Ramírez, R. Ortiz, E. Cortés, I. Ortiz, O. Monroy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 26 Jul 2021 20:20:47 +0000 Conditioning and use of prickly pear peels for the production of lignocellulosic enzymes by Aspergillus niger sp. on solid-state cultures <p><em>Aspergillus</em> spp produced laccases and xylanases when grown on a solid-state culture on prickly pear peels. Peels were sun-dried, or dried in an oven at different temperatures. The drying rate, the coloration of the dried material, and the degradation susceptibility depended on the drying mode and on temperature. Drying rate was slower for sun-dried peels, and increased at higher temperatures on oven-dried peels. Sun-dried peels were brown, while oven-dried peels were greenish. Fungal cultures grew faster on sun-dried peels and reached highest enzymatic activities earlier. Oven drying caused hornification of peels, delaying both fungal growth and enzyme production. In our study laccases titers were higher than in previous studies using various agricultural residues. Prickly pear peels are a convenient substrate to produce a lignocelulolytic extract that can be used in several bioprocesse<em>s.</em></p> Z. Vargas-Solano, M.A. Martínez-Trujillo, I. Membrillo-Venegas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Aug 2021 15:25:01 +0000 Comparison of two leachate treatment systems by use of bioreactors packed with stabilized material of different age <p><em>Leachates that are generated in the sanitary landfills constitute a contamination problem for which a treatment is necessary. A viable alternative is an application of bioreactors packed with stabilized materials. In the present work, materials with two different ages were tested, which came from different closed sites. The stabilized materials (SM) were physically characterized with parameters such as humidity, volatile solids, pH, electrical conductivity and density. The bioreactor system was operated for a period of 30 weeks in two stages, by use of a complete 2<sup>2 </sup>factorial design. In stage I, the study factors were the hydraulic head (25 and 40 L/m<sup>3</sup>d) and the age of the SM (7 and 11 years), whereas in stage II the factors evaluated were age of the SM and type of feeding (continuous and semi-continuous). The highest average efficiency in pollutant removal was 70% for COD and 81% for BOD<sub>5</sub> and color, which corresponded to a combination of factors, namely young and stabilized materials, continuous feeding and a hydraulic load of 25 L/m<sup>3</sup>d. The final effluent had average values ​​of 905 mg/L, 130 mg/L, 2388 Pt-Co and 0.09, for COD, BOD<sub>5</sub>, color and BI, respectively, for which a final purification stage was still required</em>.</p> T.J. Sánchez-Sánchez, H.A. Nájera-Aguilar, S. Enciso-Sáenz, J.J. Villalobos-Maldonado, F. Lango-Reynoso, V.M. Ruiz-Valdiviezo, J.H. Castañón-González ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Oct 2021 05:46:49 +0000 Mathematical modeling for monitoring and controlling aerobic degradation conditions of the organic fraction of urban solid waste <p>Compost has applications in agriculture and environmental restoration. Therefore, it is important to evaluate control parameters that help accelerate and improve the aerobic degradation and stabilization processes of organic waste. A mixture of pruning waste, organic fraction of municipal solid waste, paper, and sawdust was subjected to an aerobic degradation process using mature and stabilized compost from the Bordo Poniente composting plant in Mexico City at different aeration rates (0.064, 0.125, 0.201 and 0.392 L air min<sup>-1</sup> kg<sup>-1</sup> dry matter) in laboratory-scale bioreactors for 140 h. On-line monitoring of CO<sub>2</sub> production and O<sub>2</sub> consumption and their setting to mathematical models allowed to select the conditions to obtain a stable compost, as well as to analyze the concentration of trehalose, citric acid, glucose, xylose, erythritol, acetic acid, fructose, and the production of oxalic acid during the degradation process. Germination rates higher than 80% were obtained in the growth of <em>Lactuca sativa</em> seeds in organic waste extracts after aerobic degradation. A vkgm of 0.392 L air kg<sup>-1</sup> min<sup>-1</sup> DM is suggested as a strategy to obtain a compost free of phytotoxic compounds for the application of compost in agriculture or environmental restoration and a null maintenance coefficient.</p> R. Estrada-Matínez, G. Carrillo-Sancen, G.I. Cerón-Montes, A. Garrido-Hernandez, F.J. Martínez-Valdez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 07 Oct 2021 15:45:08 +0000 Natural Mexican Clinoptilolite for ethanol dehydration: adsorption–regeneration experimental parameter determination and scaling–up at Pilot Plant <p>The separation of ethanol-water azeotropic mixtures by adsorption-regeneration process using a natural Mexican Clinoptilolite has been studied. For this, the equilibrium parameters were determined from experimental data obtained at the laboratory level, which were used as a starting point for the calculation of a column at Pilot Plant scale. First, on the basis of experimental data from three different sizes of natural Mexican clinoptilolite (1-2, 3 and 5 mm) and two artificial ones with 1 and 3 mm, and from the application of standard fitting techniques: Langmuir, Freundlich and linear model parameters are calculated and compared. Then, the breakthrough curves (BTC) are determined for each zeolite in a packed bed, yielding that the adsorption and capability of natural clinoptilolite is similar to those presented by artificial zeolites. The regeneration method PSA was evaluated for each zeolite. Finally, according to the experimental parameters set, a calculation of a pilot-plant scale column is included for a validation and the results are compared with the results obtained at the laboratory scale, which presented a similar behavior. We can conclude that the use of Mexican zeolite in the ethanol dehydration process could be a good low-cost alternative that is easy to apply</p> G. Leo-Avelino, G.R. Urrea-Garcia, J. Gómez-Rodríguez, S. Perez-Correa, M.G. Aguilar-Uscanga ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 06 Jun 2021 05:55:26 +0000 Comparative study of chemical process and biotechnological process for the removal of bismuth from mining concentrates <p>In 2018, approximately 17.7 billion metric tons of minerals were produced worldwide, which represent a great importance in the industrial sector. However, most of the minerals are bound with metallic elements, which lower the price of the metals of interest. Secondary materials in valuable metal extraction processes can cause various problems in the mining industry, both economic and environmental. This research aimed evaluate two treatments for the reduction of the bismuth concentration in gold and silver mineral concentrates: Bioleaching and co- precipitation with trioxide arsenic treatment, in the first, native microorganisms of the mineral to be treated were used to reduce the concentration of bismuth; in the second, arsenic trioxide was added in order to form a precipitate that contained bismuth.. The results showed that the chemical co-precipitation treatment with arsenic trioxide can decrease the Bi concentration to a greater extent compared to the bioleaching treatment, up to 16% of the initial concentration, in addition to reducing the concentration of other undesirable elements in metals such as antimony and cadmium by 32 and 11% respectively. From this research work, a collaboration of two techniques can be proposed for a higher reduction of concentration and with greater efficiency.</p> K.I. Vargas-Rubio, H. Medrano-Roldan, D. Reyes-Jáquez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 24 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 High removal of toxic crystal violet dye using a thermally treated activated carbon fiber felt <p>In the present work, the reuse of activated carbon fiber felt (ACFF) is suggested to remove the cationic methyl violet, commonly called as Crystal Violet (CV), dye present in a synthetic solution. The morphological structure of the ACFF was analyzed by High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM). The dye removal processes were carried out discontinuously at room temperature and pH of 10, by reusing the FFCA up to 10 times. After each removal process, the ACFF was thermally treated by calcination that allowed to transform the adsorbed dye into CO and CO<sub>2</sub> wherewith its useful lifetime was extended. The results show that the adsorption process follows the Langmuir isotherm with pseudo-first order kinetics, which suggests that a chemisorption was carried out by the covalent attraction between the carbonyl groups of the ACFF and the cationic species of the dye. The novelty of the work focuses on the reuse of the ACFF for up to 10 removal cycles with a high removal rate, which can lead to a reduction in the acquisition costs of the adsorbent material.</p> O.G. Rojas-Valencia, M. Estrada-Flores, C.M. Reza-San-Germán, J.L. Ledezma-Martínez, J. Hernández-Fuentes ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 02 Jul 2021 01:45:46 +0000 Prebiotic properties of native and modified fructans (agavins) of Agave angustifolia Haw. <p><em>Agave fructans (agavins) are fructose polymers that possess β (2-1) and β (2-6) bonds. Thus, they cannot be hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes and are hence classified as indigestible oligosaccharides. These molecules have gained importance due to their various applications, one of which is their prebiotic capacity. They have also been used as wall material, encapsulating bioactive compounds and releasing them at specific sites. To determine the degree of polymerization of the native fructans, FTIR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR, and MALDI–TOF-MS were used for characterization. They were subsequently modified via acetylation with acetic anhydride and tested as a carbon source with S. boulardii, which was used as a probiotic. This process helped to evaluate whether this modification affected the polysaccharide’s fermentability. The fructans used had a DP ranging from 4–10. Acetylation was performed with a change in functional groups (C = O) in the 1700–1750 cm<sup>-1</sup> region, indicating that reaction was successful. Furthermore, yeast cell development with modified agave fructans (7.32 log<sub>10 </sub>CFU/mL and native agave fructans (7.09 log<sub>10</sub> CFU/mL) indicated that the compound's fermentation was unaffected.</em></p> C. Buitrago-Arias, A. Londoño-Moreno, S.V. Ávila-Reyes, M.L. Arenas-Ocampo, L. Alamilla Beltrán, A.R. Jiménez Aparicio, B.H. Camacho-Díaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 03 Oct 2021 20:31:15 +0000 Development of an open-source tool for equation-oriented process simulation in Python computational language <p>Nowadays, the process modeling and simulation exhibit notable importance, allowing the experimentation between different <br>process designs and control configurations, as well as quality assurance and process optimization studies. In this sense, the <br>equation-oriented approach, in which all the equations describing each subprocess are compiled into a single equation set, <br>stands out as an advantageous approach. The current work focuses on the discussion of a developed tool, SLOTH, that is open-<br>source and developed in Python computational language. The tool was applied in three different cases of study of industrial <br>relevance, and the results obtained shown that the tool was able to solve the problems, obtaining values coherent with those <br>presented in the literature, although some tasks required high computational times. Those aspects will be optimized in future <br>versions of the tool, which is built collaboratively through the open-source nature of the project.</p> H.F.S. de Freitas, P.H. Soares, J.E. Olivo, C.M.G. Andrade ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Aug 2021 15:18:28 +0000 Prediction and modeling of harmonic current behavior in grid-connected photovoltaic systems based on NARX networks <p>This research presents the modeling and prediction of the harmonic behavior of current in an electric power supply grid with integration of photovoltaic power by inverters. The methodology used was based on the use of recurrent artificial neural networks of the nonlinear autoregressive with external input type. Work data was obtained from experimental sources through the use of a test bench, measurement, acquisition and monitoring equipment. The input-output parameters for the neural network were the current values in the inverter and in the supply grid respectively. The results showed that the neural network can capture the dynamics of the analyzed system. The generated model presented flexibility in data handling, allowing to represent and predict the behavior of the harmonic phenomenon. The obtained algorithm can be transferred to physical or virtual systems for the control or reduction of harmonic distortion.</p> A.A. Jumilla-Corral, C. Pérez-Tello, H.E. Campbell-Ramírez, Z.Y. Medrano-Hurtado, P. Mayorga-Ortiz ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 12 Aug 2021 15:28:23 +0000 Injection of emulsions into cores packed with Ottawa sand and Berea sandstone as a method for enhanced oil recovery <p><em>Two oil-in-water emulsion systems with drop size less than 6 µm were evaluated to be used as part of an enhanced oil recovery method. Oil recovery tests were run through a forced imbibition study simulating secondary and tertiary oil recovery processes in porous media such as packed cells with Ottawa sand and Berea sandstone cores. The results show that the emulsions exhibited higher recovery percentage in Berea sandstone than the one obtained with Ottawa-sand-packed cores. Crude-oil-based emulsion showed recovery efficiency above 18.1 % in Berea sandstone at a flow rate of 0.16 mL/min at 78 ºC. </em></p> O. Olivares-Xometl, N.V. Likhanova, I.V. Lijanova, P. Arellanes-Lozada, J. Arriola-Morales, J. López-Rodríguez ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 13 Sep 2021 22:25:06 +0000